In this game Kasparov is showing a perfect demonstration of the triangulation technique in order to Zugzwang the white king.
To be in a Zugzwang means, any move loses or more generally, worsens your position, and one cannot simply pass the turn and maintain the position.
In the diagrammed position, the key idea to spot is that white would be in Zugzwang ...
You can easily construct many such positions. For instance:
4k3/8/3P1P/8/8/3p1p2/8/4K3 w - - 0 1
First to move loses - either by moving a king and allowing the opponent to promote or by losing one (and subsequently next) pawn.
So a player puts another player in zugzwang, and the other player makes a move. However, after that move, the first player doesn't have good moves either and it's a reverse zugzwang, or a self-zugzwang. Is it possible?
No. What you describe is incompatible with the definition of zugzwang. By definition if you place your opponent in zugzwang then any move ...
Zugzwang is when one side would like to "pass" but cannot. With a waiting move, you essentially do "pass". A waiting move could lead to zugzwang if one side has the ability to play them and the other does not, but this is by no means necessary.
An opponent might have their own waiting moves (in which case the game could be drawn by ...
There is the famous Immortal Zugzwang Game, Saemisch vs. Nimzowitsch, where White ended up in a near-zugzwang situation in the middlegame. In the final position, White, even being a Knight ahead, couldn't move a single piece without severe consequences:
6k1/3q2p1/p2bp2p/3p1r2/1p1Pp3/3bQ1PP/PP1B1rB1/1N2R1RK w - - 0 1
First the verdict on the posted problem. It has certainly no solution in up to 12 moves (checked by Popeye v4.79). And the author of the Gustav software which specializes in selfmates says that there is probably no regular solution to this problem.
Another expert thinks that if White simply captures everything which moves, he can then push bK over to g3 ...
Like Brian Towers wrote, a zugzwang by definition can't be helpful to the recipient, but if we go past the terminology and look at your second question: "white forces black to make a move that gives black an advantage. Is that possible?", the answer is yes. You can even force the other player to checkmate you; there's even a class of chess problems called ...
The original position has the White King on a4, no White pawn. It's the end of a composed study by Gorgiev that I find as #753 in Sutherland and Lommer's 1234 Modern End-Game Studies (1938, Dover reprint 1968), pages 126 and 290. The full study is:
[Title "White to move and win (Gorgiev, Pravda 1928: Mention)"]
This is a stunning endgame. It is impressive how Kasparov perfectly used reserve tempi to reach the winning position in the diagram where triangulation is all that remains after Seirawan's 40. e4?? which was the last move of time-control. After this Seirawan is lost.
Seirawan annotates this game in his book full of stories "Chess Duels : My Games with the ...
You may be thinking of what is known as "reciprocal zugzwang" which are positions where either side would stand worse for having the move. They are very common in endgames, and feature prominently in the fundamental strategies of King and pawn play. Here is a simple example.
[FEN "8/8/1p2k3/p3Pp2/P4K2/1P6/8/8 w - - 0 1"]
Here is a more ...
Here's a position with all pieces where either side to play loses.
Seeing why it's a loss takes some analysis. With Black moving first, White's best plan is to open up the Bishop on f1 pinning the pawn, then Qxa4 checkmate. This happens in most but not all lines. Shredder evaluates the main line as +22, because either Nxc5 or cxb8=Q with leave White up a ...
You seem to get the meaning/importance of tempo a bit wrong - it's not about getting back to the old square, it's about losing one move during the process, thus forcing the opponent to make his turn when it puts him in worse situation (this is called Zugzwang). This is especially important in endgames, and you can see some examples in the same wiki article ...
Here are some zugzwang positions which have been shown in answers to earlier threads:
4k3/8/3P1P/8/8/3p1p2/8/4K3 w - - 0 1
First to move loses (posted by GloriaVictis at this question on symmetrical zugzwangs).
8/8/8/3pK3/2kP4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1
The "trebuchet" (posted by Evargalo in the same thread).
3k4/3P4/4K3/8/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1
Posted by Simon ...
The following are full-point zugzwangs, so both sides are losing if either moved!
[Title "Noam Elkies. EG 128, Apr 1998, p.53, 10967 (v)"]
[fen "8/8/k7/8/K7/RNbn4/B7/1R6 w - - 0 1"]
1. Rc1 Nb2#
White: 8 with wRb1, 6 with N = 14. Black: 11 with B, 8 with N, 3 with K = 22. Total-36.
[Title "Noam Elkies. EG 128, Apr 1998, p.53, 10967 (...
It happens that someone tried to evaluate all 960 positions with an engine. Several positions got a score of 0.00, but none of them offered any advantage for black.
Of course, those conclusions are only the evaluations of Stockfish at 40 plies depth. It is a strong hint, but no definite proof, that Black is fine in the huge majority of 960-chess starting ...
In all the chess books I've read, "trébuchet" is actually one particular case of a full-point double-zugzwang: the most minimalist one you can get, with only one pawn for each player:
8/8/8/3pK3/2kP4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1
This pattern can be translated to 30 different positions, with the black pawn on any square in the b7-g7-g3-b3 rectangle. Whoever is ...
Is there a solution?
I don't think so. If the White queen goes to a square where it can interpose, then Black can just play BxB.
If, for example, White tries Qe8-d7 or Qe8-e6, hoping Black will move his b8 bishop and allow Qc8+, Black can simply not move the b8 bishop. He could instead just move his light-squared bishop next to White's (White's queen ...
Zugzwang is a situation where every single one of a player's moves loses, but if he didn't have to move then he'd be fine.
Consider this position:
White King on d5, White pawn on e4, Black King on f4, Black pawn on e5.
Whoever's move it is loses. If it's White's move then he must move his King away, and Black takes the e4-pawn. White does not want to move,...
If you look up the meaning of "zugzwang" you will see something like
Zugzwang (German for "compulsion to move") is a situation found in
chess and other games wherein one player is put at a disadvantage
because they must make a move when they would prefer to pass and not
move. The fact that the player is compelled to move means that their
A king can take two moves to go from e1 to d2 - Ke1-d1-d2 and also one move - Ke1-d2. Taking two moves is called triangulation or losing a tempo.
A rook can take two moves to go from e1 to e3 - Re1-e2-e3 or one move - Re1-e3. Taking two moves is called losing a tempo.
A knight cannot take one extra move to go to the same destination square.
I would like to add that Zugzwang is critical in endgame theory, for instance here this is a very important case of Zugzwang:
Another example here:
I explain the basics of zugzwang in my blog post here: http://chesstrainerapp.blogspot.fr/2014/02/zugzwang.html
I think you partially answered the question yourself. I can think of 3 scenarios.
In very closed positions like this game of Nakamaura against Rybka neither side may be able to improve the position, forcing players to shuffle pieces around. You might even think of slightly more open position, such as a position with blocked pawn chains and one open file, ...
If you allow promoted pieces in the diagram: The following is a half-point zugzwang.
[Title "half-point zugzwang: WTM draws. BTM loses in 14"]
[fen "3q4/8/4q3/2Q5/k7/8/8/2K4Q b - - 0 1"]
1... Qg5+ 2. Qxg5! Qc4+ 3. Kd2
It is a draw if it is white to move. Meanwhile, if it is Black to move, they lose in 14 moves. Black has 25 moves with ...
If we had enough computing power, every board state could be assigned a score recursively according to these rules:
A win is 1 for the winning player and 0 for the losing player.
A draw is 0.5 for both players.
The score for the player whose move it is is the maximum of their scores among all their possible moves, and the other player's score is the ...
[Edit: D M found an error in my solution. The key reductions are correct but I missed a branch for Black (9. .. Be4) that evades all of those reductions.]
I think I found the solution (16 moves on each side):
[Title "White Self-mate"]
[FEN "kbQ5/pb6/P7/3B4/8/7p/7p/7K w - - 0 1"]
1. Be4 Bc6 ( 1... Bd5? 2. Qh8 Bc6 3. Bd5 Bb7 4. Bc6 Bxc6#) ...
If you are in Zugzwang, by definition, there is nothing you can do, because any possible move leads to a disadvantage.
Most typically Zugzwang appears in endgames with few pieces, particularly in pawn only endgames where is is used as a very common technique. I believe that if you study pawn endgames you should encounter it very often and get very familiar ...
Zugzwang, compulsion-to-move, is where a player is forced to disadvantage their position, or obscure their strategy, tactics, or attacks by moving.
8/8/8/3pK3/2kP4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1
In this position each King aims to protect its pawn, but if it's white to play, white is forced to move away since the pawn's movement is restricted and c6 is ...
I have been able to find information for everything asked of. However, I have not found any large surveys; just mere snippets.
This page on http://ruszchessstudies.blogspot.com/ provides several examples of half-point mutual zugzwangs along with some general information. Here is one of them.
[FEN "3K4/P7/P7/8/8/8/R5rp/3k4 w - - 0 1&...
If you literally mean all pieces, the simple answer would be no, there are simply too many free pieces to move that you cannot enforce a real zugzwang scenario there.
Note that, if all pieces are still on the board, it means there hasn't been any promotion yet either. Without capturing, the pawns cannot change their files, and continuing on the same file ...