# Tag Info

59

In this game Kasparov is showing a perfect demonstration of the triangulation technique in order to Zugzwang the white king. To be in a Zugzwang means, any move loses or more generally, worsens your position, and one cannot simply pass the turn and maintain the position. In the diagrammed position, the key idea to spot is that white would be in Zugzwang ...

22

You can easily construct many such positions. For instance: 4k3/8/3P1P/8/8/3p1p2/8/4K3 w - - 0 1 First to move loses - either by moving a king and allowing the opponent to promote or by losing one (and subsequently next) pawn.

12

There is the famous Immortal Zugzwang Game, Saemisch vs. Nimzowitsch, where White ended up in a near-zugzwang situation in the middlegame. In the final position, White, even being a Knight ahead, couldn't move a single piece without severe consequences: 6k1/3q2p1/p2bp2p/3p1r2/1p1Pp3/3bQ1PP/PP1B1rB1/1N2R1RK w - - 0 1

10

First the verdict on the posted problem. It has certainly no solution in up to 12 moves (checked by Popeye v4.79). And the author of the Gustav software which specializes in selfmates says that there is probably no regular solution to this problem. Another expert thinks that if White simply captures everything which moves, he can then push bK over to g3 ...

9

Like Brian Towers wrote, a zugzwang by definition can't be helpful to the recipient, but if we go past the terminology and look at your second question: "white forces black to make a move that gives black an advantage. Is that possible?", the answer is yes. You can even force the other player to checkmate you; there's even a class of chess problems called ...

8

This is a stunning endgame. It is impressive how Kasparov perfectly used reserve tempi to reach the winning position in the diagram where triangulation is all that remains after Seirawan's 40. e4?? which was the last move of time-control. After this Seirawan is lost. Seirawan annotates this game in his book full of stories "Chess Duels : My Games with the ...

8

The original position has the White King on a4, no White pawn. It's the end of a composed study by Gorgiev that I find as #753 in Sutherland and Lommer's 1234 Modern End-Game Studies (1938, Dover reprint 1968), pages 126 and 290. The full study is: [Title "White to move and win (Gorgiev, Pravda 1928: Mention)"] [FEN "1k6/rp6/p7/p5B1/K7/8/8/...

7

The following are full-point zugzwangs, so both sides are losing if either moved! [Title "Noam Elkies. EG 128, Apr 1998, p.53, 10967 (v)"] [StartFlipped "0"] [fen "8/8/k7/8/K7/RNbn4/B7/1R6 w - - 0 1"] 1. Rc1 Nb2# White: 8 with wRb1, 6 with N = 14. Black: 11 with B, 8 with N, 3 with K = 22. Total-36. [Title "Noam Elkies. EG 128, Apr 1998, p.53, 10967 (...

7

You seem to get the meaning/importance of tempo a bit wrong - it's not about getting back to the old square, it's about losing one move during the process, thus forcing the opponent to make his turn when it puts him in worse situation (this is called Zugzwang). This is especially important in endgames, and you can see some examples in the same wiki article ...

6

Here are some zugzwang positions which have been shown in answers to earlier threads: 4k3/8/3P1P/8/8/3p1p2/8/4K3 w - - 0 1 First to move loses (posted by GloriaVictis at this question on symmetrical zugzwangs). 8/8/8/3pK3/2kP4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1 The "trebuchet" (posted by Evargalo in the same thread). 3k4/3P4/4K3/8/8/8/8/8 w - - 0 1 Posted by Simon ...

6

It happens that someone tried to evaluate all 960 positions with an engine. Several positions got a score of 0.00, but none of them offered any advantage for black. Of course, those conclusions are only the evaluations of Stockfish at 40 plies depth. It is a strong hint, but no definite proof, that Black is fine in the huge majority of 960-chess starting ...

6

Here's a position with all pieces where either side to play loses. Seeing why it's a loss takes some analysis. With Black moving first, White's best plan is to open up the Bishop on f1 pinning the pawn, then Qxa4 checkmate. This happens in most but not all lines. Shredder evaluates the main line as +22, because either Nxc5 or cxb8=Q with leave White up a ...

5

No. If you look up the meaning of "zugzwang" you will see something like Zugzwang (German for "compulsion to move") is a situation found in chess and other games wherein one player is put at a disadvantage because they must make a move when they would prefer to pass and not move. The fact that the player is compelled to move means that their ...

5

In all the chess books I've read, "trébuchet" is actually one particular case of a full-point double-zugzwang: the most minimalist one you can get, with only one pawn for each player: 8/8/8/3pK3/2kP4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1 This pattern can be translated to 30 different positions, with the black pawn on any square in the b7-g7-g3-b3 rectangle. Whoever is ...

4

Yes - A king can take two moves to go from e1 to d2 - Ke1-d1-d2 and also one move - Ke1-d2. Taking two moves is called triangulation or losing a tempo. A rook can take two moves to go from e1 to e3 - Re1-e2-e3 or one move - Re1-e3. Taking two moves is called losing a tempo. A knight cannot take one extra move to go to the same destination square.

4

I would like to add that Zugzwang is critical in endgame theory, for instance here this is a very important case of Zugzwang: Another example here: I explain the basics of zugzwang in my blog post here: http://chesstrainerapp.blogspot.fr/2014/02/zugzwang.html

4

I think you partially answered the question yourself. I can think of 3 scenarios. In very closed positions like this game of Nakamaura against Rybka neither side may be able to improve the position, forcing players to shuffle pieces around. You might even think of slightly more open position, such as a position with blocked pawn chains and one open file, ...

4

Zugzwang is a situation where every single one of a player's moves loses, but if he didn't have to move then he'd be fine. Consider this position: White King on d5, White pawn on e4, Black King on f4, Black pawn on e5. Whoever's move it is loses. If it's White's move then he must move his King away, and Black takes the e4-pawn. White does not want to move,...

4

If you allow promoted pieces in the diagram: The following is a half-point zugzwang. [Title "half-point zugzwang: WTM draws. BTM loses in 14"] [StartFlipped "0"] [fen "3q4/8/4q3/2Q5/k7/8/8/2K4Q b - - 0 1"] 1... Qg5+ 2. Qxg5! Qc4+ 3. Kd2 It is a draw if it is white to move. Meanwhile, if it is Black to move, they lose in 14 moves. Black has 25 moves with ...

3

Is there a solution? I don't think so. If the White queen goes to a square where it can interpose, then Black can just play BxB. If, for example, White tries Qe8-d7 or Qe8-e6, hoping Black will move his b8 bishop and allow Qc8+, Black can simply not move the b8 bishop. He could instead just move his light-squared bishop next to White's (White's queen ...

3

If you are in Zugzwang, by definition, there is nothing you can do, because any possible move leads to a disadvantage. Most typically Zugzwang appears in endgames with few pieces, particularly in pawn only endgames where is is used as a very common technique. I believe that if you study pawn endgames you should encounter it very often and get very familiar ...

3

Zugzwang, compulsion-to-move, is where a player is forced to disadvantage their position, or obscure their strategy, tactics, or attacks by moving. Example #1 8/8/8/3pK3/2kP4/8/8/8 w - - 0 1 In this position each King aims to protect its pawn, but if it's white to play, white is forced to move away since the pawn's movement is restricted and c6 is ...

3

I have been able to find information for everything asked of. However, I have not found any large surveys; just mere snippets. Mutual Zugzwangs This page on http://ruszchessstudies.blogspot.com/ provides several examples of half-point mutual zugzwangs along with some general information. Here is one of them. [FEN "3K4/P7/P7/8/8/8/R5rp/3k4 w - - 0 1&...

3

If you literally mean all pieces, the simple answer would be no, there are simply too many free pieces to move that you cannot enforce a real zugzwang scenario there. Note that, if all pieces are still on the board, it means there hasn't been any promotion yet either. Without capturing, the pawns cannot change their files, and continuing on the same file ...

2

In this particular endgame, there are no mutual-zugzwang-positions. An overview over the positions is at http://chess.jaet.org/cgi-bin/mzugs

2

Losing a tempo and zugzwang are normally endgame terms. All pieces, except the Knight, can maneuver to obtain the same position, ie lose a tempo(same as playing a NULL move.) In this position, Black would lose if it's his turn to move, so White loses a tempo with the Bishop. [FEN "1n6/5p1p/p1p1pP1k/1pP1P1p1/1P1PB1K1/P7/8/8 w - - 0 0"] 1. Bc2 Nd7 2. Bd3 ...

2

If you accept statistical data taken from games played between computers as evidence, then the answer may be yes. See this link for the data. At the time of writing, White scores below 50% in 155 of the 960 positions. A sample of the scores from the RNKBBRNQ starting position is shown below. Note that the average ratings for both sides are equal, so ...

2

Another famous example is http://www.chessgames.com/perl/chessgame?gid=1012683. [fen ""] [White "Alekhine"] [Black "Nimzowitsch"] [StartPly "50"] 1. e4 e6 2. d4 d5 3. Nc3 Bb4 4. e5 c5 5. Bd2 Ne7 6. Nb5 Bd2 7. Qd2 O-O 8. c3 b6 9. f4 Ba6 10. Nf3 Qd7 11. a4 Nbc6 12. b4 cxb4 13. cxb4 Bb7 14. Nd6 f5 15. a5 Nc8 16. Nb7 Qb7 17. a6 Qf7 18. Bb5 N8e7 19. O-O h6 20. ...

2

f7/e5 Clearly, e5 and f7 are corresponding: the first person to move on these squares loses I don't think your definition of corresponding squares is quite correct. If the black king goes to f7, black does not necessarily lose. In this position the fight is about the square f6. If black manages to get the king to f6 (with the white king not on f4) he ...

2

I don't know any book that has a chapter or even a long section devoted specifically to zugzwang (of course that doesn't mean one doesn't exist) but the concept is pervasive throughout any book about endgames. I think any good endgame book would help; there are books for different levels and tastes, but just to give one example that I have handy, Fundamental ...

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