25

They're connected knights. As the other answers said, this isn't typically that smart a thing for knights. OTOH, rooks are very often made stronger by connecting them (it allows them to thwart any queen intrusion). Thus you'll more often hear about it being “a good idea to connect rooks now”. But I think I've also heard the term used with knights. Just, ...


17

Putting your king in check is not a legal move as you've realized. Of course, if Black has any OTHER legal moves he can and should play one of them! If a side TO MOVE does not have ANY legal moves, that would be a stalemate, not a checkmate (which is delivered only by the side making the check)


17

"Tabiya" is a word that came from Sanskrit and passed into Old Persian, and then to our languages. It means "battle array". The ancestors of chess, shatranj e chaturanga, had pieces with very slow movement (for example, our "Queen", at that time called General or Advisor, could move only one square diagonally). For this reason, the opening phase of a game ...


15

From the Wikipedia article on the Fried Liver, Italian way of cooking liver ("Fegatello" means to put the liver in a net and cook it over a fire, or, in modern times, in a pan. Here we can see a metaphor for what happens to Black’s king in this line: it is cooked like a "fegatello". Usually Black’s king is caught in the mating net and White ...


14

I believe Brian Towers and user58697 are correct, and the author wrote/meant pen instead of pin. The dictionary tells it's a small enclosure for animals, or an abbreviation for penitentiary, which seems more appropriate. Still, it's the first time I encounter this word in a chess setting, so it's not common and the confusion is understandable. While @...


14

I've seen the term "redundant knights". In general, redundant pieces are pieces can get in each other's way. Here's a quote I could find about the general principle, but not specifically about knights: Interestingly, two of Lasker’s other points were: • The principle of redundancy: Two pieces that move the same way on the same squares can easily ...


14

I'd use the term you already mentioned, "rambling rook", for this (at least when it's a rook). Tim Krabbé claims to have invented it: If the term 'Rambling Rook' sounds unfamiliar, this could be because I invented it. In Russian it is beshenaya ladya, in Dutch dolle toren, both meaning 'crazy rook.' There is no English term, and I thought a little ...


13

Chess historian Edward Winter has a page listing the earliest known occurrences of various chess terms in English, relying mostly on citations from the OED, though for these two terms he has slight improvements on those. For Zwischenzug the earliest known use is in Chess Strategy and Tactics, by Fred Reinfeld and Irving Chernev from 1933. For Zugzwang the ...


13

A sharp position is one where every move is critical and any mistake could be your last; in such positions basic principles take a back seat to calculation. The opposite of a sharp position is a calm position, where you have time to maneuver as you please and arrange your pieces as you want before initiating confrontation.


12

A tabiya is a main starting position for a given opening. It is several moves into the game, after the opening has been determined - usually development is more or less complete. Many games will reach the exact position that is labeled a tabiya, but there will be multiple options for a continuation from the tabiya. If you are striving to understand an ...


12

I believe that the chess pieces are supposed to constitute an army - I'll try to give a breakdown of how each individual name evolved. Xianqi, or Chinese Chess, originally developed in India before spreading across the world. Xianqi is the Chinese interpretation of the ancient game, and the pieces do really sound like those that would be in an army - ...


12

According to wikipedia: En passant (from French: in passing) is a move in chess. As far as i can find, 'In passing' is the translation of the name of the move, however it is not actually spoken as 'en passant' is used instead. One explanation for the appearance of this term is that Lasker, the author of the book, accidentally translated the word. ...


11

The question of whether chess is a sport depends entirely on the context of the question. In certain situations, it may be useful to classify chess as a sport. For example, as you mention, in some schools chess is considered a sport because it matches the requirements of a sport in that context - an activity that pupils can engage in outside of academic ...


11

Some say: There will probably other theories about the origin of the name "rook" for this chess piece; however here is the one I believe is best. IN the origins of the game itself, the game was called Chaturanga and it was not exactly the same as modern chess. The piece we call a rook was considered to be a chariot rather than a castle, probably because ...


11

As @Ywapom notes, Zugzwang is often used to the describe the end of this situation, like the Immortal Zugzwang Game where Sämisch suffers this fate against Nimzowitsch. For the progress itself, it's perfectly normal to use non-chess specific terminology here, e.g. you could say White was slowly getting strangled by Black in the game above.


11

I had never heard the term, but such pawns are very important for their contribution to certain mating patterns, the most famous of which would be Damiano's mate, which was included in Damiano's 1512 book Questo libro e da imparare giocare a scachi et de li partiti. Here's an archetypal example: [FEN "5rk1/6pQ/6P1/8/8/8/8/8 w - - 1 1"]


10

Well, just when I was writing the question up, I finally found the answer -- no -- so I am answering my own question. Way down at the bottom of this web page, it gives the Yiddish name for the bishop (once transcribed from the Hebrew alphabet) as "der Loyfer," which is like the German name "der Läufer." So, assuming this is a reliable source (and it's ...


10

If you call somebody a club player, you not only distinguish him from professionals and masters (though those obviously play in clubs too), but also from hobbyists. And that distinction makes some sense, because hobby players usually don't reach a strength beyond 1500 Elo or so. So a club player is somebody who is serious about chess, plays rated games ...


10

"positional advantage" -- This could refer to a better pawn structure or deployment of forces; a knight outpost or the opponent has doubled pawns etc. In battle it could be having the high-ground. "initiative" and "attack" are used similarly, but "initiative" is who can make the next threat. For example, in Tennis: you have the serve = initiative. You ...


9

What you here call 'patterns' are more commonly called chess tactics. See the Wikipedia article for Chess Tactics for a list with some visualization. These are the simple patterns. There are more complicated patterns that arise rather less commonly, but these complicated patterns tend to simply be a composite of the 'basic tactics'. A fine example of a ...


9

It sounds like you are describing near "zugzwang". "Zugzwang: a situation in which the obligation to make a move in one's turn is a serious, often decisive, disadvantage" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zugzwang "Bind" is another term often used to describe restriction.


9

As far as I know, there's no standard terminology for this. It is usually not the best configuration for two knights; they are stronger when positioned side by side, so that they cover a lot of squares in the same area. If I had to describe the situation, I'd go for something like 'mutually protecting knights'. There's a related concept which is called the '...


9

No, it's not a gambit; a gambit is 'just' a sacrifice which is part of (well-known) opening theory, nothing more, nothing less. But, technically, what you describe is not even a real sacrifice, but a 'sham sacrifice'. Wikipedia gives the following definitions: Real versus sham Rudolf Spielmann proposed a division between sham and real sacrifices: ...


9

To be frank, chronological order is not really a chess thing as much as a general thing that is just defined by English. In 40 years of playing, and reading (at my peak, I had 1800 chess books, and have read 300 cover to cover), that is the first time I have heard the term "chronological order" attempted to be used as a pure chess term. So to be clear, ...


8

The first English definition of blunder I see is "a stupid or careless mistake", and that's how I have always perceived the term in chess. It's not the severity of the error that matters so much as how silly and avoidable it is. If you played a move that takes the evaluation from 0 to -10 because you missed all the implications of a spectacular sacrifice ...


8

I agree with asdf regarding the idea that there isn't a name specifically attached to indirect protection of a piece stemming from a fork. However, in general, pieces that are protected by any tactic, including forking, are said to be "indirectly defended." As far as a name for the piece being indirectly defended, one might call it a "bait" piece, as it ...


7

According to the online manual for the app, After each engine's move, the output [d/s]eval indicates a search depth d, a selective search depth s, and an evaluation in centipawns eval from white's perspective. For instance, the output [4/8]-103 indicates that the engine searched 4 plies ahead, with some variations even 8 plies ahead, and thinks that black ...


7

Chess theory in this sense refers to opening variations / opening analysis. Every strong player has a repertoire of opening lines that he likes to play and in which he knows pretty well which moves are the best. Some players analyse the opening exhaustively and try to find tricky lines before they sit down to play. This is helped by the fact that they can ...


7

Backward pawn: a pawn that is behind its colleagues on a pawn chain. It cannot safely advance because it will be captured. These pawns are often a liability because they can be attacked. Example: 8/8/8/3p4/3P1P2/4P3/8/8 w - - 0 1 The pawn on e3 is backward. If Black e.g. places rooks on the e-file, White will have to guard the pawn with pieces, which is ...


6

As pointed out in the comments, it's nigh impossible to pin down the very first usage, but since you're after a rough idea, I'll get the ball rolling with an initial answer of the oldest definite use I'm aware of; it's from within the last 25 years, so maybe others can improve on this with better answers. In 1990, there was a tournament held in New Delhi ...


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