Retrograde analysis is the method of deducing information by working backwards from a given position or outcome. This information can be about past positions of the same game, or may contain forward content, such as optimal play.

In the realm of chess, retrograde analysis is prominent in the creation of endgame tablebases, as well as in composed chess problems (known as retros) in which the goal is to determine what move or sequence of moves immediately led up to a given position.