Who first started to annotate chess moves with “!” for good & “?” for bad?!

EDIT: Two data points:

(1) 1859 "The Book of the First American Chess Congress." The annotated games have no exclamations or question marks, instead there are (generally critical) footnotes marked with asterisks, daggers etc, e.g.

13 B. to K. B. 4th.*

  • This was scarcely advisable.

[Sorry, the second asterisk is not properly represented in chess.se.]

(2) 1895 Hastings Chess Tournament Book,

Plenty of exclamation marks, modestly encased in brackets. There are no question marks (perhaps that would have been thought rude). But typically the exclam is the answer to an inferior move discussed in a footnote, for example in Schiffers' annotations of Alvin vs Bird (Aug 5th) p 23:

34 R x Kt P[8] P x P (!)

[8] He ought to have played P x P, Q x P ; 35. Q B to B sq, &c.

However I see in the comments this is not our earliest sighting of "!", which Noam Elkies has traced to 1887.

  • 3
    FWIW, there are no ! and ? in Handbuch des Schachspiel (1843), although there are the proto +/-, =, and -/+. books.google.fr/… . I don't see any ! nor ? in Staunton either.
    – Evargalo
    Commented Jul 8 at 13:37
  • 1
    Looking in Google Books at C. Salvioli's Teoria E Pratica Del Giuoco Degli Scacchi (1887) I see no "?", even for blunders, but liberal use of "!". Commented Jul 8 at 21:45