The key ideas for Black in the Queen's Indian Defense is to:
Restrain White in the center
The Queen's Indian Defense can be reached after the moves:
1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nf3 b6
In the Queen's Indian Defense, black is going aim his light-squared bishop and knight at e4 in order to restrain the moves e4 and to prevent d4 ...
The simple reason is because 3...b6 doesn't prevent 4.e4! when White immediately grabs the center.
1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 b6 4.e4!
The bishop on b7 isn't very effective in the kind of pawn structure that arises after e4. Often, White may play f3, strengthening the e4 point and completely blunting the bishop on b7.
Consider this ...
In many cases, openings are named after a notable first master game (or games). The master or country does not necessarily must have contributed to it. Apparently in the case of Indian openings (1. d4 Nf6), they are named after Moheschunder Bannerjee. See the Wikipedia article on Indian defence.
In Indian Chess, the game that was played in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries in India (not to be confused with its ancestor Chaturanga), the rules allowed no castle, but :
The king can make a knight's move once in a game, known as Indian castling.
As a consequence, g3 followed by Kg2 for White or ...b6 followed by ...Kb7 (the black king stands on ...
White's intended setup involves fianchettoing his dark-squared bishop on b2. The "free move" 6. Bd2 brings more harm than good:
Transferring the bishop onto the long diagonal, if white wishes to, will still take another move (i.e. Bd2-c3), but more importantly, if he does, the bishop on c3 takes away the square for the knight, which is preferred in many ...
Many Nimzo players already have the Queen's Indian Defense on their repertoire to deal with 3. Nf3. Such players may transpose between the two defenses whenever they have the opportunity and feel like switching.
To be more precise, it is after 4. Nf3 that black has the option to enter a QID/Nimzo hybrid with 4... b6.
Does this make a real important difference? Or is this position also considered as a QID?
This is definitely not QID, as White hasn't played d4 yet. This is a major difference, that is good for White. Black needs to prevent e4 in the QID and he succeeds in it, but here White has an extra "warrior" for fight for the e4, the d-pawn. If White could get e4 then ...
According to Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Queen%27s_Indian_Defense
"The effect of Black's check has been to lure White's bishop to c3 where it blocks the c-file.
This, the current main line of the Queen's Indian, is considered equal by theory and became a frequent guest in grandmaster praxis in the 1980s."
You should be able to get some ...
White wants to avoid doubled c-pawns and all of the moves you mention, Qc2, Qd3, Nxe4 and Bd2 achieve this.
As you note, Nxe4, exchanging knights tends to be drawish, so is not what most white players want.
With the queen moves (Qc2, Qd3) your queen will end up on c3, which is a bit of an unusual square for the queen. Also the c1-bishop is not developed ...
I will take a shot at it with my limited knowledge. I think it seems to me like a Reti transformed into a standard English opening line with 3. g3 b6 4.Bg2 Bg7 5.0-0. Your assumption is right when you say it's not a QID since white didn't play d4. Will white play d4 later anyway? It's possible, although for instance after 5.0-0 Be7, if I were white, I might ...
Given that white's main light squares defender around the king (after white castles king side) is its Bishop on g2 which at some point in the game can be exchanged with Black's bishop on b7, isn't this line a bit more riskier?
If they get exchanged black will also lose his light squared bishop which could have taken advantage of the weakened light squares ...
In "Indian" defenses, Black holds back his center pawns, especially his d-pawn, against a White 1. d4. This "Indian" style is in contrast to the European style of opposing 1. d4 with 1. ... d5, and 1. e4 with 1. ... e5.
Instead, Black opts to contest White's control of the center from the side. In the King's and Queen's Indian defenses, this means moving g6 ...
I set out to answer my own question with the help of two computers. A Dell desk top using Windows 7 and a Dell laptop using Windows XP. The desktop used Deep Fritz 12 and Fritz 11 was used on the laptop. I played the London opening against Deep Fritz 12 and it appeared to use the Semi-Tarrasch. After I set-up the opening in Fritz 11, Deep Fritz 12 lost to ...
A person (from almost a century ago), for whom the Queen's Indian defense was a favorite, was (then) World Champion, Jose Raul Capablanca.
He was a "slow" positional player, not known for (although certainly capable of) sharp tactical play.
See also, this question.
The main advantage of the Queen's Indian defense is that it gives a good development to the light squared bishop, otherwise Black's problem piece, along the long diagonal.
Because it involves a "slow" development, it gives White a chance to overreach.
For the above reasons, it was a favorite opening of (then) World Champion, J.R. Capablanca (nearly a ...