White to move:
[FEN "8/q1P1k3/8/8/8/8/6PP/7K w - - 0 1"]
Since my example is rather contrived and artificial, I'll also say that the so-called Lasker trap in the Albin Countergambit gives a more realistic setting, and one where a knight promotion is the best option as early as move 7:
1.d4 d5 2.c4 e5 3.dxe5 d4 4.e3 $2 Bb4+ 5.Bd2 dxe3! 6.Bxb4 $4 ...
I have some partial statistics for the question, from the Million Base 1.74 database, a collection of 1742057 games. 77218 of these games (4.4%) feature at least one promotion.
I counted 49970 promotions for white (54% of all promotions) and 42519 for black (46%). Here are the destination square statistics (meaning there is no track of the actual initial ...
It's probably a trick problem with a promotion to a black knight.
Such promotions to the wrong colour are not allowed, and never were. In the official rules it is now specifically pointed out that the new piece has to have the same colour as the promoted pawn.
FIDE's laws of chess, Article 3.7 e:
When a pawn reaches the rank furthest from its starting ...
From FIDE rules (3.7 e):
When a pawn reaches the rank furthest from its starting position it must be exchanged as part of the same move on the same square for a new queen, rook, bishop or knight of the same colour. The player’s choice is not restricted to pieces that have been captured previously. This exchange of a pawn for another piece is called ‘...
During round 9 of the Istanbul 2012 Chess Olympiads, at the Nakamura-Kramnik table of the USA vs Russia match, we've witnessed another one of those promotions to knight at move 62 by white.
The relevant position (white to play):
[fen "8/2P1k3/8/8/5p2/5KbB/3pp3/3N4 w - - 1 62"]
1. c8=N+ (1. Kxe2? f3+ 2. Kxf3 Bxc7)
We can see here that if
After answering this question, I was reminded of another important situation where underpromotion is necessary:
[FEN "8/8/8/8/8/2K5/1p5R/2k5 b - - 0 1"]
1... b1=N+! (1... b1=Q 2. Rh1++)
In this position, 1...b1=N+ is the only move to draw. Any other move will allow a quick mate, but after knighting the pawn, black sets up a drawing fortress.
Here's a preliminary answer to where such a belief about chess pawns could possibly have come from. In the Japanese variant Shogi, in which an opponent's captured pieces may be placed onto the board as one's own, it is not legal to place down a pawn that gives immediate checkmate. It's still perfectly legal to drop a pawn that gives check though (and to ...
White intends to play c5, which will gain space on the queenside and severely cramp black's position (The b6 knight has no good square).
On the other hand, e5 weakens white's control over d5 and f5 (e.g. Black can then go ...Ne7-f5). Black could also take advantage of the weak c4 and d5 squares with ...Na5 and ...Bc6. Keeping the pawn on e4 seems better. ...
Allowing the en passant capture is one of the last major rule changes in European chess that occurred between 1200 and 1600, together with the introduction of the two-square first move for pawns, castling, and the unlimited range for queens and bishops (Davidson 1949:14,16,57). Spanish master Ruy López de Segura gives the rule in his 1561 ...
In the original form of the game from which chess probably derived, chaturanga, there was no piece named "Queen".
The Queen of modern chess probably derived from a piece named "General": in the beginning this piece could move 1 square only diagonally, then its movenemt became more and more similar to the modern Queen. But there's more: in chaturanga there ...
A pawn break is a pawn move designed to free the player's position.
Generally speaking, a pawn move is only called a pawn break when the moving pawn is on a file adjacent to two enemy pawns facing each other, and the pawn moves forward to the same rank as the player's other pawn.
Since a picture is worth a thousand words...
White can play either 1. c3 or ...
I disagree that it is primarily about development.
This is a very common theme, and it comes down to the fact that e5 is not easily defended by a pawn (aka "artificially isolated"). Bg4 soon will trade one of the pe5's defenders, and it will need constant watching. It is not a big deal that you will be trading the Bc8 on f3 since white already traded on c6 ...
I have never heard this before... A pawn can check and also mate.
According to Wikipedia:
"...it is a pawn that is behind a pawn of the same colour on an adjacent file and that cannot be advanced without loss of material, usually the backward pawn itself. In the diagram, the black pawn on the c6-square is backward."
"Pieces can become weak when they are devoted to protecting a backward pawn, since their obligation to ...
It's a mistake to view the pawns themselves as overextended targets that you might get to "pick off" as you say in your post. After all, Black's main objective with the pawn storm is probably to open up lines to attack your king, and so your snapping up such overextended pawns really only furthers Black's goal.
As already pointed out in comments in this ...
The question is extremely open, as these pawns may be moved for many reasons depending on the position you are facing. In a general sketch, you may consider five kind of a and h pawn moves:
To create some luft for the king, that is, avoid once and for all the back rank threats.
[FEN "r5k1/5ppp/8/8/8/8/5PPP/1R4K1 w - - 0 1"]
In this position, neither rook ...
Having more pawns than one's opponent (assuming non-pawn material is even) is extremely important in the endgame. Many games of chess boil down to endings where one side has just a single pawn more than the other, and all the action centers around the attempt to promote. In fact, one could not unreasonably define endgames, as opposed to middlegames, as those ...
I would love to see the position; please add it to your question somehow (we can always edit it to look nice). However, there is no such rule. Either your computer doesn't implement captures en passant (improbable these days) or the capture was not valid for some other reason.
e5 does nothing for you and helps your opponent. Why?
First, it does nothing for your development. Much better would be d3 which releases the c1 bishop and protects the e pawn. If your opponent plays de then you retake de and he is left with doubled isolated pawns on the c file and an isolated pawn on the a file. If he doesn't then exchange queens he also ...
Let's assume that white is the side with the two knights, and black has the single pawn. The endgame study composer A. A. Troitzky gave an analysis (in a lengthy supplement to his 1937 Collection of Chess Studies) that established what is now known as the "Troitzky line":
So long as a white knight has the black pawn securely blockaded on one of these ...
Using pawns to support pawns is a common practice. However, it seems you're taking it too far; in the beginning of the game you probably want to focus on controlling the center and getting some pieces into the game.
Moving pawns without reason can cause holes and reduce at least one bishop to uselessness. It can make your king hard to defend.
It seems like there are really 3 parts to your question:
When and how should pawn breaks be made?
How should rooks be placed to support pawn pushes?
How should plans be made around pawn breaks?
As a disclaimer, these questions are incredibly complicated, so take this answer as a starting point. Entire books have been written about pawn play. ...
This is too complex to have straight principles. Of course there are some patterns that you are going to recognize during your improvement and there are also easy things. I'm going to mention a few at the end of this post. First of all, let me refer to positions cited by you.
Key is calculating, always, and this is great example. First thing you ...
I had never heard the term, but such pawns are very important for their contribution to certain mating patterns, the most famous of which would be Damiano's mate, which was included in Damiano's 1512 book Questo libro e da imparare giocare a scachi et de li partiti. Here's an archetypal example:
[FEN "5rk1/6pQ/6P1/8/8/8/8/8 w - - 1 1"]
In short, white may well be overextending.
From black's point of view¹, white is offering many targets for black to attack :
d4 as c3 is not possible anymore, and if e5 is traded for d6.
e5 if d6 gets traded for d4
c4 if white's king bishop moves anywhere useful
Behind the pawns is a lovely place to land knights (d3 via b4 is not uncommon, e3 via f5 ...