42

There are probably as many quick mates as there have been first time players (since we all get caught in these at the start!) but here are a few common ones: Fool's Mate This is the shortest possible checkmate in a mere two moves: [FEN ""] 1. f4 e5 2. g4 Qh4# 0-1 White can also play f3 instead of f4 or move the g pawn before the f pawn. Scholar's Mate ...


29

For a short mating possibility in a very standard mainline opening, one can look to the Smyslov-Karpov variation in the Caro-Kann Defense: [FEN ""] [Result "1-0"] 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Nd7 5.Qe2 Ngf6?? 6.Nd6# The most popular continuations are 5. Nf3, 5. Bc4 and 5. Ng5 (an aggressive try which Kasparov assayed a number of times against Karpov). ...


25

Good question, and I think that there are a lot of different common patterns/tactics that improving players would do well to learn: (very roughly ordered from simplest to most difficult) "Simple" tactics and endgames knight forks and bishop forks - get in the habit of just seeing the squares that would be forked instead of needing to spend time looking ...


13

A mate in 2½ move, derived from Wayward Queen Attack, occurs if black moves Ke7 as a panic attempt to "protect" the e5 pawn with the king, which may occur if young players move too quickly: [FEN ""] 1. e4 e5 2. Qh5 Ke7 3. Qe5#


10

[FEN "nbqnbrkr/pppppppp/8/8/8/8/PPPPPPPP/NBQNBRKR w KQkq - 0 1"] [StartPly "3"] 1. d3 {Pyt Honisten eröffnet mit seinem Lieblingsbauern} g5 {Retho Riker antwortet mit seiner Standard-Antwort} 2. Qxg5# {Pyt Honisten ging zum nächsten Brett, während sich Retho Riker tränenreich vom Schach verabschiedete.} With Chess960, also known as Fisher Random Chess, you ...


9

What you here call 'patterns' are more commonly called chess tactics. See the Wikipedia article for Chess Tactics for a list with some visualization. These are the simple patterns. There are more complicated patterns that arise rather less commonly, but these complicated patterns tend to simply be a composite of the 'basic tactics'. A fine example of a ...


8

There's a 2-move checkmate, termed fool's mate: f3 e5 2. g4 Qh4# Fool's mate on wikipedia


7

Castling is a certain 'committing' move; if you castle kingside, your king is stuck there until the late middlegame / early endgame, and you cannot easily launch a pawn storm on that side. The first allows your opponent to castle queenside and know he/she can launch a king attack (but possibly allowing your attack as well); the second allows your opponent to ...


6

Yes, there are some standard setups/patterns that are useful specifically for defense, and the most "absolute" such defensive setups in chess go under the term fortress, which are setups in which the stronger side is provably unable to make any progress toward a win. Valentin's answer, for instance, already gives a nice example of a known fortress, wherein ...


6

In my long (20+ years) chess career I haven't actually seen any book/article on 'defence setups'. Probably because there are not many general helpful setups and more often than not you have to adapt to the current position. But there are some obvious common sense ones. One obvious one is the Pawn+Bishop one you mentioned but many times you just don't want ...


6

I'm fond¹ of this one, after sacrificing my queen for some pieces and having to deal with all my additional material being forked all over the place : [FEN "8/3P4/P2rP3/2p2Q2/8/3n4/8/5k2 w - - 0 1"] Note that in this setup, the knight is not bound to its square, as it can move and get back to other pawn-defending squares in no time. It's a very flexible ...


6

[FEN ""] 1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 c5 3. d5 b5 4. cxb5 a6 5. Nc3 axb5 6. e4 b4 7. Nb5 Nxe4 8. Qe2 Nf6 9. Nd6#


6

The Blackburne-Shilling Gambit could result in a quick loss for White if he plays some fairly plausible moves: [FEN ""] 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 {Italian opening} Nd4 4.Nxe5 {Free pawn!} Qg5 5.Nxf7 {Forking the queen and rook.} Qxg2 6.Rf1 {Preventing Qxh1} Qxe4+ 7.Be2 {Qe2 Nxe2 drops the queen} Nf3# 0-1


6

First ask yourself why the differentiation of a 'back-rank mate' is meaningful. Generalized patterns that we call 'tactics' have names because it helps us to learn from them and respond to them. For example, I personally find the distinction between 'pin' and 'skewer' meaningful because it helps to separate the concepts of attacking 'through' either a less ...


5

GM Ben Feingold recently published a lecture to Youtube on Castling vs. Non-Castling positions which helps to answer your question. When one player castles and the other doesn't, it creates an imbalance in the position. The non-castling player is trading King safety for some amount of tempo/activity. The castling player now has the opportunity to attack a ...


5

To add to the Fool's Mate idea, this game left enough of an impression on me to remember it. [FEN ""] 1. d4 f5 2. Bg5 {An enterprising line, threatening to weaken Black's pawn structure after the natural Nf6.} h6 3. Bh4 g5!? {This seems to trap the bishop, but the holes around the Black king are very dangerous. It is objectively OK, but only if Black does ...


4

As pointed out, the "patterns" you were looking at are largely covered more abstractly in the domain of tactics... My favorite guide when I was new to chess on that was Yasser Seirwan's book Winning Chess Tactics. Once you get the basic ideas, the only way to improve on those is practice. I find the tactics sites like chess.emrald.net to be the best ...


3

These are standard tactics. One is called a pin, where a relatively weak piece is tied up in front of stronger piece. It can't move without exposing the stronger piece. Another is called the skewer, where the stronger piece is in front, and can't move away without exposing the weaker piece. The third is called a fork, attacking two pieces in two different ...


3

Maximum distance between knight and any piece. Distance between king and passed pawns. Distance between knight and passed pawns (has to be calculated because the knight can give a check to gain time). Recognize opposite colored bishop endgames that can still be won (by blocking the opponent bishop diagonal or preventing the bishop from taking a diagonal ...


3

Once the first castling took place, the castled rook can easily face the king on the other side. This is a potential threat, which should be neutralized in advance. One way of handling this threat is by responding with castling, which explains the frequent cases in which castling is a consecutive move on both sides of the board. Note that another way to ...


3

A couple reasons: 1. It is the natural flow of developing. Just as one side gets their pieces out so does the other and when clear to castle they often do so and so does the other. 2. Often one side waits for the opponent to commit their king and once it is committed so then they commit theirs.


2

A very informative article about PARADISE was published by Wilkins himself in "Artificial Intelligence, Volume 14, Number 2" (September 1980), which I was lucky to get my hands on years ago when I was writing my diploma thesis on chess programming and kept it since then. Unfortunately, it is rather difficult to get at these days. But the article should have ...


2

No, it's rather unusual (but beautiful!) to mate a King in the middle of the board. Because it's rare, probably nobody (that I know of) has coined a term for it yet.


1

No, it does not have a name. For a list of the names of most common patterns, Wikipedia has a good article here.


1

This would still be called a hanging piece. If the piece can be taken with impunity, it is a hanging piece. It is irrelevant how many attackers there are on the piece, how many defenders there are on the piece, or the point value of the attackers/defenders.


1

As others have mentioned, what you have shown are common tactics (the pin and the fork) which are used to win material, generally based on a double attack, only one component of which you can answer. There are other tactics as well, including the discovered attack, x-ray attack (skewer), deflection and overloading. Often tactics are conjoined in a ...


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