16

Playing Kg2 in this position would "put your king in check" in that the black king is attacking that square already. So, no, that would be an illegal move. The fastest way to checkmate in this position would be Qd4 (forcing the black king to move to h2) followed by Qh4#.


12

The answer depends on whether or not the games are being recorded. The way this is elliptically referenced in the FIDE Laws of Chess is that a distinction is made between, on the one hand, standard time controls (where moves must be recorded by the players), rapid and blitz games played at a sufficiently high level that there are enough arbiters to record ...


10

Yes, it is legal, since your king is no longer being attacked.


9

No, the game is drawn, as per article 7.5.5 of FIDE Laws of Chess (emphasis mine): 7.5.5 After the action taken under Article 7.5.1, 7.5.2, 7.5.3 or 7.5.4 for the first completed illegal move by a player, the arbiter shall give two minutes extra time to his opponent; for the second completed illegal move by the same player the arbiter shall declare the game ...


3

The rook on the center board in the present is blocking the check. Even if it goes to the past, a copy stays on the board where it moved from. The rook on the center board isn't checking the king because it already moved to the past.


2

It is legal to block a check with a move that also gives check. This includes the case you ask about, where the blocker is a queen; this is a key tactic in queen endings. In general, a move that simultaneously parries a check and gives check is called a cross-check. This can happen with any of the three ways to parry a check: The King can move, discovering ...


1

Clearly, the move must be taken back and the clocks adjusted, does this count as if an illegal move also? No. There was one illegal move. That move was punished as an illegal move. That move was retracted, i.e. unmade. A legal move was made. A total of one move was made and then the clock was pressed. The player must move the first touched piece, but ...


1

Yes, that move even has a proper name called cross-check Nowadays most chess programs/apps/websites implement complete FIDE rules. A quicker way to check might be to set up the board that reflects your case, and see if the program allows you to move that way


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