The first thing to note is that for low level tournaments there is not even a requirement for a qualified arbiter to be on site. The arbiter must be a licensed arbiter (International Arbiter, FIDE Arbiter or National Arbiter) but is not required to actually be there. They can be at home watching TV. If there is a problem they can be consulted on the phone.
FIDE 12.6 says:
It is forbidden to distract or annoy the opponent in any manner whatsoever. This includes
unreasonable claims, unreasonable offers of a draw or the introduction of a source of
noise into the playing area.
There is no mention of this applying only on one's opponent's turn. "introduction of a source of noise into the playing area" ...
It ensures that you'll always have some time left after you move so that you won't lose a game "on time", i.e. as long as you move within the incremental interval. For example, if it were a 10 minute game with 5 second increments, and you got down to a point where you only had several seconds left on your clock, as long as you could continue to ...
You are absolutely allowed to call the arbiter when it is your opponent's turn. There are any number of reasons why this would be necessary.
To start with the most prosaic, you have filled your scoresheet and
need another one.
You are feeling unwell and need medical assistance
Your opponent has picked up a piece but isn't sure where to move it to. They are ...
There is no rule saying that you can call the arbiter only on your turn, or that the opponent is allowed to distract you during their own turn.
If you want a more specific answer, you may need to give more details of the situation, for example what the nature of the distraction was. It seems a bit unlikely, but one can imagine some behaviour by the opponent ...
It was done to make Fischer happy. He thought that if he was in time trouble that he should still have xx seconds to move.
Others of us say that chess is a timed game and if you get into time trouble then you deserve to blunder or see your flag fall.
Increments make the game much longer and for speed chess totally distorts the time control. My friend ...
According to an announcement on the FIDE website today, 4th January 2021,
The FIDE Council has approved a new set of rules to be applied to official online chess competitions. The document, which will be incorporated into the laws of chess, is the result of a joint effort by a dedicated task force, in which several FIDE Commissions were involved
By my reading of the FIDE rules, I'd say no, you're not allowed to press your opponent's clock.
Article 6.2.1 makes it clear that pressing the clock is an integral part of the move, and the duty of the player who made the move:
6.2.1 During the game each player, having made his move on the chessboard, shall stop his own clock and start his opponent’s clock. ...
Because "that much longer" changes with the move count. You can't look at a 15+15 minute time control and say "why not make it an hour?" because scholar's mate exists, so you'd be overestimating, and the 50 move rule exists, so you'd be underestimating.
It depends on what you mean by "increments". If you are referring to something like "playing a game in 10m + 4s", then the main reason is preventing that a player with a huge material advantage (v.g. king plus rook versus king) doesn't lose on time. With the increment of 4 seconds after each move is made, the player with the advantage ...
According to the FIDE Laws of Chess
9.5.3 If the claim is found to be incorrect, the arbiter shall add two minutes to the opponent’s remaining thinking time. Then the game shall continue. If the claim was based on an intended move, this move must be made in accordance with Articles 3 and 4
There is a big clue in the FIDE Laws of Chess in the section titled "Guidelines III. Games without increment including Quickplay Finishes" which deals with games or final parts of games with no increment in rapid and standard where one player is at risk of losing on time unjustified because they have a better or even winning position.
A modified ...
No, the game is drawn, as per article 7.5.5 of FIDE Laws of Chess (emphasis mine):
7.5.5 After the action taken under Article 7.5.1, 7.5.2, 7.5.3 or 7.5.4 for the first completed illegal move by a player, the arbiter shall give two minutes extra time to his opponent; for the second completed illegal move by the same player the arbiter shall declare the game ...
According to the FIDE Laws of Chess:
6.2.2 A player must be allowed to stop his clock after making his move, even after the opponent has made his next move.
7.5.3 If the player presses the clock without making a move, it shall be considered and penalized as if an illegal move.
Together these mean that you would be wise to press your opponent's clock, ...
What are those rules?
The rules are defined in the FIDE document C.04.1 Basic rules for Swiss Systems.
C.04.1 Basic rules for Swiss Systems
The following rules are valid for each Swiss system unless explicitly stated otherwise.
a The number of rounds to be played is declared beforehand.
b Two players shall not play against each other more than once.
Hi I have clarified this over the years with the senior FIDE International Arbiter at the time, Stewart Reuben, who is busy now writing the definitive book on the History of the Laws of Chess.
You focus on the essential point: treatment of possible moves. The TL;DR is that en passant is based on possible moves, castling is based on rights.
At first glance ...
TL;DR: Based on what's written in the FIDE LoC, the second position is a draw, while the first isn't.
About castling (emphasis mine):
220.127.116.11 a king had castling rights with a rook that has not been moved, but forfeited these after moving. The castling rights are lost only after the king or rook is moved.
In your position, the king had castling rights but ...
I've run some queries against my database constructed from the rating data downloaded from the the FIDE download site. I've then copied the output of the queries to Excel and asked it to draw some graphs.
Here are the results for standard, rapid and blitz for December 2020.
As far as I know, Fide does not publish a figure of the Elo distribution. So you can plot it yourself from the latest rating list; or you can rely on secondary sources who occasionally post it, such the link provided by @Michael West or this answer on this site. Both show the distribution of Fide Elo on July 2014.
The figure below shows the Elo distribution ...