This is a matter of proper practice along with general knowledge from books and experience from playing at slower rates gradually increasing faster as you improve.
Playing blitz will definitely harm your ability. You need to play 'fast' but train yourself to take some time to pick a move. Ten seconds must wait and then play is good. You need to ...
You made a mistake when transcribing move 7. It is 7. Qh5+, not 7. Qf3+. Move 10 is then Qh5f7, which is not blocked by the Nf6.
1. e4 Nf6 2. e5 Nd5 3. d4 d6 4. Nf3 dxe5 5. Nxe5 Nd7 6. Nxf7 Kxf7 7. Qh5+ Ke6 8. c4 N5f6 9. d5+ Kd6 10. Qf7 Ne5
BCE (Basic Chess Endings) by Fine was the one I used. It is long out of print. There are some newer books but I can't say which of them might be good now. Also online has the sort of info you want and would be easier to find what you think is good for you.
A nice book for beginners is How To Beat Your Dad At Chess. It lists 50 tactics - mostly checkmating attacks. Each tactic appears on two pages, with a brief explanation and a few diagrams showing examples of the tactic in use. Usually there are no more than two or three moves made between the diagrams, so it is reasonably easy to follow between the diagrams. ...