Is it possible for a white piece to deliver check to the black king, but for black's counter move to result in white getting checkmated?
Has this happened in games between top players?
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You can find some examples in the following game collection: Games where check is answered with checkmate.
Among those games, Nigel Short vs Alexander Morozevich, Russia - The Rest of the World (2002) is the only one that meets the qualification top players. This was a rapid game.
The most entertaining example is the following:
[FEN ""] [Event "Philadelphia (m/7)"] [Site "Philadelphia (m/7)"] [Date "1945.??.??"] [Result "0-1"] [White "NN"] [Black "Winkelman"] [ECO "C29"] 1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.f4 d5 4.fxe5 Nxe4 5.Qf3 Nc6 6.Bb5 Bc5 7.Nxe4 dxe4 8.Qxe4 O-O 9.Ne2 Re8 10.Bxc6 bxc6 11.Qxc6 Rxe5 12.Qxa8 Rxe2+ 13.Kd1 Bg4 14.Qxd8+ Re8# 0-1
Could there be another example here? http://www.futilitycloset.com/2010/06/09/intercepted/ or is it checkmate followed by checkmate?
Here is an example of a check that forces a checkmate reply:
[fen "R3q3/r7/8/Rp5n/2P3Q1/1p3Kb1/N4RBP/2rkr3 w - - 0 119"] 1. Nc3+ Rxc3#
(from a generated game with worst moves possible).