Here are my thoughts - sorry, thought you were playing black. Hopefully still of value to you.....
2...f6 was indeed bad...resulting in Nxe5 followed by Queen incursion.
4...dxe5 is bad, allowing queen trade and subsequent loss of castling privilege.
Losing the right to castle while every other piece is still on board is bad.
Queens alone being removed does not make it safe enough.
Can you see how white's early castling "doubles down" on black's inability to
castle - making that disadvantage stand out even more?
6...Nh6 is also bad, inviting doubled pawns.
Although the trading of pieces WOULD suit the black uncastled king.
Is that bit of safety worth the doubled pawns? Is a question to try and answer.
9...c6 is a lot of pawn moves so far and has weakened the dark squares around
the black king - AND white still has his dark squared bishop.
It appears as if 7...a6 was preparing for a later ...b5 (which WOULD
give the black white-squared bishop the nice long diagonal) except that 8...b5 doesn't work
here because of white's earlier 8. a4
It looks like maybe black noticed this a little late and decided on 9...c6 instead. Yet this is the type of calculation to try before committing to moves.
Black shouldn't have felt compelled to make another pawn move in the vicinity JUST because he suddenly realized that ...b5 wouldn't work.
12...Nf7 just losses a piece outright. Black is now down a piece, therefore positional considerations like pawn structure or active/inactive piece are really not relevant for him now. Unless the lost piece provided an irresistible initiative that outweighed material, then positional considerations take a back seat to material and should not be considered on par with it. Once material balance is restored, positional factors regain their importance.
As to your question:
- How should I handle such conditions where my opponent Is just attacking my
attacking pieces?...Before putting your pieces into positions of attack, you should try to calculate whether your opponent can easily just chase them. If he can, perhaps a short term plan could involve a way to PREVENT him from easily chasing them?