4

In "How Life Imitates Chess", end of chapter 16, Kasparov says that positions needing 200 moves to win have been discovered with the help of computers. So I am wondering which such position is, which the moves are and who discovered it.

7

Many such positions were found thanks to endgame databases. Below is the current record holder, coming from Bourzutschky and Konovals 7-men tablebases. With black to move, white mates in 524 moves.

8/1r6/8/6n1/5k2/1b6/3K3N/7Q w - - 0 0

I do not have enough time on my hands to type the solution out. It can be easily found on Google by searching for "forced 524 moves mate chess" or similar query. Here's a video of it, though: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wxIaMcO2amE

However, probably more remarkable is this 19th century (!!) composition by Otto Blathy (he authored several other similar monstrous problems). White to move and mate in 292 moves.

q5nn/1p2p3/p1k1P1p1/6Pp/PKp1p1pP/8/2P1P1PP/3Q4 w - - 0 0 

1. Qd7+ Kb6 2. a5+ Ka7 3. Qd4+ Kb8 4. Qd8+ Ka7 5. Qb6+ Kb8 6. c3! Kc8 7. Qc5+ Kb8 8. Qe5+ Kc8 9. Qd5 Kc7 10. Qd7+ Kb8 11. Qd8+ Ka7 12. Qb6+ Kb8 13. e3 Kc8 14. Qc5+ Kb8 15. Qe5+ Kc8 16. Qd5 Kc7 17. Qd7+ Kb8 18. Qd8+ Ka7 19. Qb6+ Kb8 20. g3 Kc8 21. Qc5+ Kb8 22. Qe5+ Kc8 23. Qd5 Kc7 24. Qd7+ Kb8 25. Qd8+ Ka7 26. Qb6+ Kb8 27. Ka3 Kc8 28. Qc5+ Kb8 29. Qe5+ Kc8 30. Qd5 Kc7 31. Qd7+ Kb8 32. Qd8+ Ka7 33. Qb6+ Kb8 34. Kb2 Kc8 35. Qc5+ Kb8 36. Qe5+ Kc8 37. Qd5 Kc7 38. Qd7+ Kb8 39. Qd8+ Ka7 40. Qb6+ Kb8 41. Kc2 Kc8 42. Qc5+ Kb8 43. Qe5+ Kc8 44. Qd5 Kc7 45. Qd7+ Kb8 46. Qd8+ Ka7 47. Qb6+ Kb8 48. Kd2 Kc8 49. Qc5+ Kb8 50. Qe5+ Kc8 51. Qd5 Kc7 52. Qd7+ Kb8 53. Qd8+ Ka7 54. Qb6+ Kb8 55. Ke2 Kc8 56. Qc5+ Kb8 57. Qe5+ Kc8 58. Qd5 Kc7 59. Qd7+ Kb8 60. Qd8+ Ka7 61. Qb6+ Kb8 62. Kf2 Kc8 63. Qc5+ Kb8 64. Qe5+ Kc8 65. Qd5 Kc7 66. Qd7+ Kb8 67. Qd8+ Ka7 68. Qb6+ Kb8 69. Kg2 Kc8 70. Qc5+ Kb8 71. Qe5+ Kc8 72. Qd5 Kc7 73. Qd7+ Kb8 74. Qd8+ Ka7 75. Qb6+ Kb8 76. h3 gxh3+ 77. Kxh3 Kc8 78. Qc5+ Kb8 79. Qe5+ Kc8 80. Qd5 Kc7 81. Qd7+ Kb8 82. Qd8+ Ka7 83. Qb6+ Kb8 84. Kg2 Kc8 85. Qc5+ Kb8 86. Qe5+ Kc8 87. Qd5 Kc7 88. Qd7+ Kb8 89. Qd8+ Ka7 90. Qb6+ Kb8 91. Kf2 Kc8 92. Qc5+ Kb8 93. Qe5+ Kc8 94. Qd5 Kc7 95. Qd7+ Kb8 96. Qd8+ Ka7 97. Qb6+ Kb8 98. Ke2 Kc8 99. Qc5+ Kb8 100. Qe5+ Kc8 101. Qd5 Kc7 102. Qd7+ Kb8 103. Qd8+ Ka7 104. Qb6+ Kb8 105. Kd2 Kc8 106. Qc5+ Kb8 107. Qe5+ Kc8 108. Qd5 Kc7 109. Qd7+ Kb8 110. Qd8+ Ka7 111. Qb6+ Kb8 112. Kc2 Kc8 113. Qc5+ Kb8 114. Qe5+ Kc8 115. Qd5 Kc7 116. Qd7+ Kb8 117. Qd8+ Ka7 118. Qb6+ Kb8 119. Kb2 Kc8 120. Qc5+ Kb8 121. Qe5+ Kc8 122. Qd5 Kc7 123. Qd7+ Kb8 124. Qd8+ Ka7 125. Qb6+ Kb8 126. Ka3 Kc8 127. Qc5+ Kb8 128. Qe5+ Kc8 129. Qd5 Kc7 130. Qd7+ Kb8 131. Qd8+ Ka7 132. Qb6+ Kb8 133. Kb4 Kc8 134. Qc5+ Kb8 135. Qe5+ Ka7 136. Qd4+ Kb8 137. Qxh8 Kc7 138. Qe5+ Kc8 139. Qd5 Kb8 140. Qd8+ Ka7 141. Qb6+ Kb8 142. Ka3 Kc8 143. Qc5+ Kb8 144. Qe5+ Kc8 145. Qd5 Kc7 146. Qd7+ Kb8 147. Qd8+ Ka7 148. Qb6+ Kb8 149. Kb2 Kc8 150. Qc5+ Kb8 151. Qe5+ Kc8 152. Qd5 Kc7 153. Qd7+ Kb8 154. Qd8+ Ka7 155. Qb6+ Kb8 156. Kc2 Kc8 157. Qc5+ Kb8 158. Qe5+ Kc8 159. Qd5 Kc7 160. Qd7+ Kb8 161. Qd8+ Ka7 162. Qb6+ Kb8 163. Kd2 Kc8 164. Qc5+ Kb8 165. Qe5+ Kc8 166. Qd5 Kc7 167. Qd7+ Kb8 168. Qd8+ Ka7 169. Qb6+ Kb8 170. Ke2 Kc8 171. Qc5+ Kb8 172. Qe5+ Kc8 173. Qd5 Kc7 174. Qd7+ Kb8 175. Qd8+ Ka7 176. Qb6+ Kb8 177. Kf2 Kc8 178. Qc5+ Kb8 179. Qe5+ Kc8 180. Qd5 Kc7 181. Qd7+ Kb8 182. Qd8+ Ka7 183. Qb6+ Kb8 184. Kg2 Kc8 185. Qc5+ Kb8 186. Qe5+ Kc8 187. Qd5 Kc7 188. Qd7+ Kb8 189. Qd8+ Ka7 190. Qb6+ Kb8 191. Kh3 Kc8 192. Qc5+ Kb8 193. Qe5+ Kc8 194. Qd5 Kc7 195. Qd7+ Kb8 196. Qd8+ Ka7 197. Qb6+ Kb8 198. g4 Kc8 199. Qc5+ Kb8 200. Qe5+ Kc8 201. Qd5 Kc7 202. Qd7+ Kb8 203. Qd8+ Ka7 204. Qb6+ Kb8 205. gxh5 gxh5 206. Kg2 Kc8 207. Qc5+ Kb8 208. Qe5+ Kc8 209. Qd5 Kc7 210. Qd7+ Kb8 211. Qd8+ Ka7 212. Qb6+ Kb8 213. Kf2 Kc8 214. Qc5+ Kb8 215. Qe5+ Kc8 216. Qd5 Kc7 217. Qd7+ Kb8 218. Qd8+ Ka7 219. Qb6+ Kb8 220. Ke2 Kc8 221. Qc5+ Kb8 222. Qe5+ Kc8 223. Qd5 Kc7 224. Qd7+ Kb8 225. Qd8+ Ka7 226. Qb6+ Kb8 227. Kd2 Kc8 228. Qc5+ Kb8 229. Qe5+ Kc8 230. Qd5 Kc7 231. Qd7+ Kb8 232. Qd8+ Ka7 233. Qb6+ Kb8 234. Kc2 Kc8 235. Qc5+ Kb8 236. Qe5+ Kc8 237. Qd5 Kc7 238. Qd7+ Kb8 239. Qd8+ Ka7 240. Qb6+ Kb8 241. Kb2 Kc8 242. Qc5+ Kb8 243. Qe5+ Kc8 244. Qd5 Kc7 245. Qd7+ Kb8 246. Qd8+ Ka7 247. Qb6+ Kb8 248. Ka3 Kc8 249. Qc5+ Kb8 250. Qe5+ Kc8 251. Qd5 Kc7 252. Qd7+ Kb8 253. Qd8+ Ka7 254. Qb6+ Kb8 255. Kb4 Kc8 256. Qc5+ Kb8 257. Kxc4 Qa7 258. Qxa7+ Kxa7 259. Kc5 b6+ 260. axb6+ Kb7 261. c4 a5 262. Kb5 a4 263. Kxa4 Kxb6 264. Kb4 Kc6 265. c5 Kd5 266. Kb5 Kxe6 267. Kc6 Kf7 268. Kd7 e5 269. c6 Ne7 270. c7 Nd5 271. c8=Q Nb6+ 272. Kd8 Nxc8 273. Kxc8 Ke8 274. Kc7 Ke7 275. Kc6 Ke6 276. Kc5 Ke7 277. Kd5 Kf7 278. Kxe5 Kg7 279. Kxe4 Kg6 280. Kf4 Kf7 281. Kf5 Kg7 282. e4 Kf7 283. g6+ Ke7 284. e5 Kf8 285. e6 Ke7 286. g7 Kd6 287. g8=Q Kc5 288. e7 Kd4 289. e8=Q Kc5 290. Qe5+ Kb4 291. Qgb8+ Kc4 292. Qbb5#
4

Thanks to GloriaVictis's indications I have been able to find the answer to my question. In 1976 Walther Jorgersen, a Danish composer, published a mate in 200 in the magazine "Schwalbe". However, André Chéron extended the problem to 203 moves that same year by adding a small change. But unlike Blathy's mate (see GloriaVictis answer), this one is completely forced.

6n1/p1BN3b/p1p3np/p1p2rpq/6kr/K1P4p/2PP4/7Q w - - 0 1

1.Qg1+ Kf3 2.Qf1+ Kg4 3.Qe2+ Rf3 4.Qe6+ Rf5 5.Bh2 Kf3 6.Qe3+ Kg2 7.Qg1+ Kf3 8.Qf1+ Kg4 9.Qe2+ Rf3 10.Qe6+ Rf5 11.Kb2 Kf3 12.Qe3+ Kg2 13.Qg1+ Kf3 14.Qf1+ Kg4 15.Qe2+ Rf3 16.Qe6+ Rf5 17.Kc1 Kf3 18.Qe3+ Kg2 19.Qg1+ Kf3 20.Qf1+ Kg4 21.Qe2+ Rf3 22.Qe6+ Rf5 23.Kd1 a4 24.Kc1 Kf3 25.Qe3+ Kg2 26.Qg1+ Kf3 27.Qf1+ Kg4 28.Qe2+ Rf3 29.Qe6+ Rf5 30.Kd1 a5 31.Kc1 Kf3 32.Qe3+ Kg2 33.Qg1+ Kf3 34.Qf1+ Kg4 35.Qe2+ Rf3 36.Qe6+ Rf5 37.Kd1 a6 38.Kc1 Kf3 39.Qe3+ Kg2 40.Qg1+ Kf3 41.Qf1+ Kg4 42.Qe2+ Rf3 43.Qe6+ Rf5 44.Kd1 a3 45.Kc1 Kf3 46.Qe3+ Kg2 47.Qg1+ Kf3 48.Qf1+ Kg4 49.Qe2+ Rf3 50.Qe6+ Rf5 51.Kb1 Kf3 52.Qe3+ Kg2 53.Qg1+ Kf3 54.Qf1+ Kg4 55.Qe2+ Rf3 56.Qe6+ Rf5 57.Ka2 Kf3 58.Qe3+ Kg2 59.Qg1+ Kf3 60.Qf1+ Kg4 61.Qe2+ Rf3 62.Qe6+ Rf5 63.Kxa3 Kf3 64.Qe3+ Kg2 65.Qg1+ Kf3 66.Qf1+ Kg4 67.Qe2+ Rf3 68.Qe6+ Rf5 69.Kb2 Kf3 70.Qe3+ Kg2 71.Qg1+ Kf3 72.Qf1+ Kg4 73.Qe2+ Rf3 74.Qe6+ Rf5 75.Kc1 Kf3 76.Qe3+ Kg2 77.Qg1+ Kf3 78.Qf1+ Kg4 79.Qe2+ Rf3 80.Qe6+ Rf5 81.Kd1 a4 82.Kc1 Kf3 83.Qe3+ Kg2 84.Qg1+ Kf3 85.Qf1+ Kg4 86.Qe2+ Rf3 87.Qe6+ Rf5 88.Kd1 a5 89.Kc1 Kf3 90.Qe3+ Kg2 91.Qg1+ Kf3 92.Qf1+ Kg4 93.Qe2+ Rf3 94.Qe6+ Rf5 95.Kd1 c4 96.Kc1 Kf3 97.Qe3+ Kg2 98.Qg1+ Kf3 99.Qf1+ Kg4 100.Qe2+ Rf3 101.Qe6+ Rf5 102.Kd1 c5 103.Kc1 Kf3 104.Qe3+ Kg2 105.Qg1+ Kf3 106.Qf1+ Kg4 107.Qe2+ Rf3 108.Qe6+ Rf5 109.Kd1 a3 110.Kc1 Kf3 111.Qe3+ Kg2 112.Qg1+ Kf3 113.Qf1+ Kg4 114.Qe2+ Rf3 115.Qe6+ Rf5 116.Kb1 Kf3 117.Qe3+ Kg2 118.Qg1+ Kf3 119.Qf1+ Ke4 120.Qxc4+ Kf3 121.Qf1+ Kg4 122.Qe2+ Rf3 123.Qe6+ Rf5 124.Ka2 Kf3 125.Qe3+ Kg2 126.Qg1+ Kf3 127.Qf1+ Kg4 128.Qe2+ Rf3 129.Qe6+ Rf5 130.Kxa3 Kf3 131.Qe3+ Kg2 132.Qg1+ Kf3 133.Qf1+ Kg4 134.Qe2+ Rf3 135.Qe6+ Rf5 136.Kb2 Kf3 137.Qe3+ Kg2 138.Qg1+ Kf3 139.Qf1+ Kg4 140.Qe2+ Rf3 141.Qe6+ Rf5 142.Kc1 Kf3 143.Qe3+ Kg2 144.Qg1+ Kf3 145.Qf1+ Kg4 146.Qe2+ Rf3 147.Qe6+ Rf5 148.Kd1 a4 149.Kc1 Kf3 150.Qe3+ Kg2 151.Qg1+ Kf3 152.Qf1+ Kg4 153.Qe2+ Rf3 154.Qe6+ Rf5 155.Kd1 c4 156.Kc1 Kf3 157.Qe3+ Kg2 158.Qg1+ Kf3 159.Qf1+ Kg4 160.Qe2+ Rf3 161.Qe6+ Rf5 162.Kd1 a3 163.Kc1 Kf3 164.Qe3+ Kg2 165.Qg1+ Kf3 166.Qf1+ Kg4 167.Qe2+ Rf3 168.Qe6+ Rf5 169.Kb1 Kf3 170.Qe3+ Kg2 171.Qg1+ Kf3 172.Qf1+ Kg4 173.Qe2+ Rf3 174.Qe6+ Rf5 175.Ka2 Kf3 176.Qe3+ Kg2 177.Qg1+ Kf3 178.Qf1+ Kg4 179.Qe2+ Rf3 180.Qe6+ Rf5 181.Kxa3 Kf3 182.Qe3+ Kg2 183.Qg1+ Kf3 184.Qf1+ Kg4 185.Qe2+ Rf3 186.Qe6+ Rf5 187.Kb2 Kf3 188.Qe3+ Kg2 189.Qg1+ Kf3 190.Qf1+ Ke4 191.Qxc4+ Kf3 192.Qf1+ Kg4 193.Qe2+ Rf3 194.Qe6+ Rf5 195.Kc1 Kf3 196.Qe3+ Kg2 197.Qg1+ Kf3 198.Qf1+ Kg4 199.Qe2+ Rf3 200.Qe6+ Rf5 201.Kd1 N8e7 202.Nf6+ Kf3 203.Qe2# 1-0 

The solution commented by John Nunn can be found here.

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