This is a profound question. I merely offer a few points to keep in mind.
You can't avoid all weaknesses. In your position d6 is weak because Black has played c6. But if he had not played c6 then d5 might be a weakness. You need to judge which would be more serious.
Simply arriving at a weak square is not a great achievement unless there is something for the piece to do when it gets there. In your position b6 is perhaps weak, but weaknesses far from the center of the board are often not very important because other potential attackers cannot coordinate with it.
It is not always important to take advantage of weaknesses immediately. There is little that White can do directly in this position but he can make sensible developing moves like Rad1 and Rfe1 and Qc4. Black does not have a similar set of "useful little moves" if he needs to keep his weaknesses defended.
A weakness is not serious if it takes a long time to reach it. Even if you give White a lot of free moves, how does that Knight arrive on b6? The problem is that both the Knight and the Queen want to use c4.
You do not include c5 in your list of weak squares, but it can only be defended by b6. Given Blacks frequently occurring Pawn structure this is often important.
If White had known Blacks setup in advance, he could have placed his pieces more effectively. For example move Nf3 to b3, Pf2 to f3, Qd3-f2 and the Black position looks very porous. You have treated this position where the weaknesses (if such they are) are already present. There is an important topic of how to induce weaknesses that are exploitable.
To win a superior ending it is often necessary to penetrate through a weakness with your King, but the defender can often guard a single weakness, or two weaknesses that are close together. You will often see an annotation "opening a second weakness" which is the way to exploit superior mobility.
Finally, I was once in a position to offer a draw to a much stronger player, IM Bill Hartston. Potentially I had a strong attack but could not regroup my pieces because I had to keep them tied down to defending a weak pawn. After we agreed the draw I mentioned this and Bill replied, "Ah yes, but Im tied down to attacking it" This remark is worth taking some time to understand.