The FIDE-approved classical time control is: (taken from the handbook)
07 Time Control
There is a single time control for all major FIDE events: 90 minutes for the first 40 moves followed by 30 minutes for the rest of the game with an addition of 30 seconds per move starting from move one.
This time control is used in many major chess events such as the Olympiad, FIDE Grand Prix and World Cup.
Another popular international time control for classical is 90 minutes with a 30 second increment.
The classical time control used in the World chess Championship is: (from Wikipedia)
120 minutes, with 60 minutes added after move 40, 15 minutes added after move 60, and 30 additional seconds per move starting from move 61
Blitz time controls is simpler, with just two that dominate tournaments.
3 minutes with a 2 second increment is very popular in top level tournaments, being used in the recent World Blitz chess Championships and most, if not all the top level blitz events, this is because FIDE wants to avoid wins on time, to preserve the quality of top-level chess and also because there are significant prize funds at stake.
5 minutes is the most popular however, as it is easier to schedule as the games can only go as long as 10 minutes, whilst with an increment in can take a while.
15+10 (15 minutes with a 10 second increment) was the time control used in the recently concluded FIDE World Rapid and Blitz chess Championships.
25+10 Is very popular in top level rapid chess and all around as well, it was used in the World Cup in 2013 for the rapid tiebreak stage.
25 This is the most popular for the same reasons as 5 is for blitz.
This is for the rest of the world.
For the United States, its a whole different story,