Is there software that tracks unassisted game play and categorizes player's strengthens and weaknesses in a way that allows the player to focus on the most valuable deliberate area practice relative to the player's strengthens and weaknesses?
I'm confident in saying that there is no such software; though engines are of course incredibly strong players, and their numerical evaluations can certainly pinpoint poor individual moves that you might make, the kind of helpful feedback you describe is unfortunately out of reach for a computer program at this point in time. On the plus side, though, there is a fantastic (and cheap!) alternative to such nonexistent software: human players who are stronger than oneself.
One of the best ways to get better at chess (and this is in common with most competitive endeavors) is just to play against the strongest opponents you can find, whether casually or in tournament play, especially if you can pick their brains in a postmortem afterward. You will come to learn where they saw you going wrong, and in what areas of the game you tend to make mistakes, and in time you will see more and more of these things on your own. And even if you don't talk through the game afterward, just the playing itself will be a boon to your development as a player, as there's no substitute for practice against the best, and steel sharpens steel.