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[FEN "6nN/Bp1k2pp/2n5/p7/Q4R1P/5pP1/P3qN2/4K2R w K - 0 1"]

As you can see my king got checkmated through the enemy's queen and pawn.

My question is, why is this a checkmate? I haven't moved the king as well as the castle to the right.

Why can't I swap them, so King=g1 & castle=f1, saving the king and evading checkmate?

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1 Answer 1

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According to the FIDE Laws of Chess:

3.8.2.2 Castling is prevented temporarily:

  1. If the square on which the king stands, or the square which it must cross, or the square which it is to occupy, is attacked by one or more of the opponent's pieces

So, there are two reasons why you may not castle:

  1. You are in check
  2. Your king would need to pass over the square f1 which is attacked by the enemy queen