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I was wondering if there was a move so bad in chess that if you played it the only move your opponent could do was checkmate you back, through blocking your piece or through moving the king. It would definitely require a discovered check of some sorts but I can't think of any position that would work.

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See item #334 in Krabbé's Chess Diary https://timkr.home.xs4all.nl/chess2/diary17txt.htm for candidates for "the worst move possible", in the sense that you have many moves, all of which are mate in 1 (or in one case lead inevitably to mate in 2) except for a single move that forces the opponent to checkmate you!

For instance, in this legal position, White has 48 legal moves, of which 47 deliver checkmate, and 1 (Qe6+) gives a forced checkmate in 1 to Black:

b2rQQQ1/3P1p1Q/3r1k2/2pP1N1Q/4KRPp/5P2/1R6/B3nn2 w - - 0 1
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Yes it exists, and there are even many problems created where one side aims at forcing the other one to mate - they are called selfmates problems.

A simple example: White: Kh6,Ph5,Qa7 Black: Kh8,Qg8

1.Qg7?? forces Black to mate with 1...Qxg7#

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This reminds me of a game that GothamChess once had in one of his videos:

[fen "3r4/6Q1/5p1p/4p2p/3PBP2/P3P1Pk/1q5p/2R3K1 w - - 0 1"]

1. Bg2 Qxg2# {only move} (1. Bf5# {White had mate-in-1} 1-0) 0-1

White to move could have gone Bf5#.

But instead, they went Bg2+, which not only was not mate, but also left black with the only move ..Qxg2#.

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