I will soon teach my chess kiddies the laws of pawn endings. The overarching strategem is of course "Queen a pawn, Queen it first, Queen and stop calculating". Look at the easy win (Stockfish says) against even a pawn armada worth almost two queens (illegal, of course):
[FEN "8/4P3/pppppppp/pppppppp/8/4k3/8/4K3 w - - 0 1"]
But chess wouldn't be chess without exceptions. It could happen that you must assign the outcome of a queen endgame if the opponent queens too. The opponent can escape into a stalemate. The opponent might even mate you, even if the enemy pawn doesn't queen in the next move or at all!
For no peculiar reason I'd like to split the question in a) game only a draw after queening first/game even lost and b) rank of most forward enemy pawn on time of Blacks queening move, making 2*6 questions. By the (IMHO unpractical) SE rules I must now split. Fortunately, for some questions I already know the answer, and some "dominate" others, so less than 12 questions remain for you to find an economy record. (EDIT: Far less - Evargalo completely mopped up the "draw" case.) Positions should be legal! (Unless noted otherwise) Please give always the position before Black queens (and if Black makes another move, it doesn't change the result!).
- What is the most economic pawn endgame (least number of pawns; tie: less white ones) where Black queens first and still loses, White pawn on 7th?
- draw, rank 6 or higher, 1+1 pawn
- draw, rank 2 or higher, 1+1 pawn (rank record as well)
- win, rank 6 or higher, 1+1 pawn ("beats" the answer here by 1 row)
- draw, rank 3 or 4, 2+2 pawns
- win, lower than rank 5, 2+3 pawns