I'm new to this forum and don't know if the following question is appropriate. It is of a more general "meta-chess" nature.

I wonder if a variant of chess makes sense in which negotiations are mimicked like this: When black is to move he proposes a number of possible next moves and white must give responses to each of the proposals (as "promises"). After this step (the "negotiation step") black definitely chooses one of his moves, and white must respond as promised. Then white makes his proposals and so on.

The (maximal) number n of proposals may be specified, but does not have to. n=1 is already different from standard chess. I assume that it doesn't make sense to propose fewer than n moves when n are allowed (because you will get more information from the opponent) – but it will be a matter of time.

This variant would not be a completely different game but obviously a significantly different one. It bears more similarities with actual warfare where negotiations play a role. Was it ever considered to play this variant of chess, maybe in some niches of the chess world?

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    Related: in some of the assizes dealing with the Pawn's Leap, the question that some places answered with en passant was instead answered with negotiation. That is, if you wanted to move your pawn two spaces to land beside an opponent's pawn, you had to ask permission (and if the opponent declined, then you would have to make a different move). Commented Feb 28, 2022 at 12:40
  • @L.ScottJohnson: Thanks! What's an "assize"? What is a "place"? Is "en passant" an answer by such a "place",and is "negotiation" another answer? What exactly do these answers mean? Which of them is the declining answer you mention? (Sorry if these questions are amateurish.) Commented Feb 28, 2022 at 12:45
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    An assize is a particular set of rules that is observed in a given region. This one was known in Spain. Instead of allowing en passant capture, in this version of the rules, the opponent could deny you the option to move your pawn forward two squares if it would land beside his own pawn. Commented Feb 28, 2022 at 12:57
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    If black makes a proposal and whites gives their response, and black chooses to actually play that, and so white also has to play their response, then both black and white have now made a move. You write that it is now white's turn to make a proposal, which would imply that white would move twice in a row (and black as well). Is this what you meant?
    – hkBst
    Commented Mar 1, 2022 at 9:55
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    @hkBst: Yes. First black makes proposals, white gives responses, black chooses one pair of (proposal,response): Two moves are made. Second white makes proposals, black gives responses, white chooses one pair of (proposal,response): Two moves are made. Commented Mar 1, 2022 at 10:10

1 Answer 1


Not really an answer, but a quite similar idea: The variant "Refusal chess" is known. One side makes a move, the other can let it stand (in which case it counts as played) or refuse it (in which case another move must be played, which then stands). Obviously, this could be generalized to higher n, "only legal moves" have to always stand.

(My source: Faschingsschach der WELT, methinks)

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    See also the CVP page (where it is called "Refusal Chess" instead), and the related Compromise Chess. Commented Feb 28, 2022 at 15:21
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    @BenReiniger: Compromise and Choice Chess indeed seem to be very closely related - but with possibly substantial differences: In Negotiation Chess the opponent has to give answers to each of the proposed moves, and the player who's turn it is selects one of his moves together with the answer. Commented Feb 28, 2022 at 17:14
  • @BenReiniger: I translated the German name. Edited. Commented Mar 1, 2022 at 18:47

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