I think I found the "refutation" to this setup:
1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. g3 Bg7 4. Bg2 O-O 5. Nc3 d6 6. Nf3 Nc6 7. O-O e5 8. d5 Ne7 9. e4 Nd7 10. Ne1 f5 11. Nd3 Nf6 12. Bg5 h6 13. Bxf6 Bxf6 14. f4
I'm no master, but it seems to me like Black's attack has been completely stopped on the kingside because White has managed to blockade e4/f4, while White still has potential for launching a queenside attack. Nearly all of the master games from this position are either White wins or draws.
On the flipside, I did notice that
8...Nb8 scores much better for Black after
8.d5, but if White plays
9.c5 after that then the winning chances again seem to favor White.
edit: Indeed, the
8...Nb8 line is featured on FM Kamil Plichta's Chessable course: https://www.chessable.com/course/31739/