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This is a big-list question regarding chess themes (mostly tactical). There are some puzzles that illustrate important aspects of a tactic (esp. useful in a chess coaching setting). For example, the following puzzle speaks volumes about pin.

[Title "Adapted from Schatz vs. Giegold, Hof (1928)"]
[FEN "7k/pb2q3/1p3p2/2prp1p1/6P1/1P1R4/PQ3PP1/1B5K b - - 0 1"]

1...Qh7+ 2.Rh3 Rd1+ 3.Kh2 Rh1+ 4.Kg3 
    ( 4.Kxh1 Qxh3+ 5.Kg1 Qxg2# )
4...Qh4+ 5.Rxh4+ gxh4#

Credit: Adapted from Martin Weteschnik, Understanding Chess Tactics.

In particular, the puzzle illustrates creating a pin, and that absolutely pinned piece can move and bring about surprises.

Include only one puzzle per answer. The value of an answer should be decided by the following:

  1. How good the puzzle illustrates various points of the theme (mention the theme and the specific points of theme illustrated by the puzzle).
  2. How beautiful and/or surprising the puzzle is.

To be clear, the difficulty of a puzzle is a demerit if it becomes a hurdle for the puzzle to illustrate the theme to most of the audience.

Also, include the details of the game or the composition.

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  • I think we can actually measure how good a tactic illustrates a puzzle. Otherwise, we wouldn't have theme-based puzzles. – Cyriac Antony May 22 at 12:50
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    I'm afraid that is obvious nonsense. We can determine if a puzzle illustrates a tactic. How well the puzzle illustrates a particular tactic is a matter of opinion. Your question is an invitation to a discussion, not a request for a definitive answer. Those kinds of questions are not allowed. – Brian Towers May 22 at 14:10
  • I was basically asking a big-list question. I was surprised not to see a big-list tag; I suppose big-list questions are simply not acceptable here. – Cyriac Antony May 22 at 17:22
  • I have modified the question to give less space for opinions without facts. – Cyriac Antony May 23 at 7:35
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Theme: Pin
Illustrated points:

  1. Creating pin - Method 2: Attacking piece and the piece to be pinned are in one line, lure the third piece to the same line.
  2. Even absolutely pinned piece can move (though its mobility is restricted to the pinning line).

Puzzle:

[Title "Adapted from Schatz vs. Giegold, Hof (1928)"]  
[FEN "7k/pb2q3/1p3p2/2prp1p1/6P1/1P1R4/PQ3PP1/1B5K b - - 0 1"]

1...Qh7+ 2.Rh3 Rd1+ 3.Kh2 Rh1+ 4.Kg3 
    ( 4.Kxh1 Qxh3+ 5.Kg1 Qxg2# )
4...Qh4+ 5.Rxh4+ gxh4#

Source: Adapted from Martin Weteschnik, Understanding Chess Tactics.

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