5

I'm not familiar with this proof game.

[FEN "r2qk1nr/ppp1pp1p/2n1p2p/8/8/1P6/NPPPPPPP/R3K2R w KQkq - 0 1"]

What square was the white queen captured and how?

9

The White Queen was captured on h6 by the Black Pawn.

The reasoning is as follows:

* It is impossible for both White bishops to move from their start squares, so they were both captured by Black knights.

* White's other two missing pieces are a knight and the queen. Black has two displaced pawns that are there as the result of captures (pawn on e6 and h6), So both of those pawns captured White pieces.

* Essentially the White queen developed from it's d1 start square to b1-a2 and then outside of White's pawn chain

* Which means the question is how did White's pawn get from a2 to b3. Black has no pawns missing. The Black queen and both knights are on the board, which means White's pawn capture of a2 to b3 was capturing the Black light-squared bishop (which started on c8).

* But, how did Black's bishop get from c8 to b3? Via the d7-square, which is unblocked by the black pawn capture d7xe6. That capture must have been of the missing White knight, because the White queen couldn't get to e6 to unblock the black dark-squared bishop.

So the time series of key events:

* Black's knights marauded around the board capturing both White bishops on their start squares, and returned to g8 and c6

* White's knight got to e6 and was captured by the black pawn on d7, thus allowing the Black light-squared bishop to develop. The other knight stayed on the queenside. One of White's knights captured the black dark-squared bishop on f8.

* Black's now freed bishop landed on b3, and was captured by the a2 pawn. This freed the White Queen

* The White queen developed via b1 and a2, reached h6 and was captured by the Black pawn on g7.

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