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Well, I looked at some long checkmates, and I wonder, what is the longest checkmate a human has composed?

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The longest known checkmate problem composed by a human is dependent on a few criteria that are generally used by chess composers. Namely, it is a question of whether or not you want the problem to have a unique solution, meaning that there is only one possible solution with Black defending optimally, and if you want the position to be legal or not, meaning that it is reachable from the starting position. Another consideration is whether or not promoted pieces are allowed, as most composers try to not use them. Finally, it is also debatable whether or not an illegal position must have only pieces from the chess box, with pawns being converted as needed.

Here is a selection of a few problems that fall along these lines.

This is the longest legal problem with a unique solution and no promoted pieces.

[Title "Walther Jørgensen, Thema Danicum 1982, Mate In 226"]
[fen "1N2Q3/p6n/p5n1/p1p2rpb/p4k1r/K1P4p/2PP4/6B1 w - - 0 1"]

1. Bh2+! Kf3 2. Qe3+ Kg2 3. Qg1+ Kf3 4. Qf1+ Kg4 5. Qe2+ Rf3 6. Qe6+ Rf5 7. Nd7 Kf3 8. Qe3+ Kg2 9. Qg1+ Kf3 10. Qf1+ Kg4 11. Qe2+ Rf3 12. Qe6+ Rf5 13. Kb2! Kf3 14. Qe3+ Kg2 15. Qg1+ Kf3 16. Qf1+ Kg4 17. Qe2+ Rf3 18. Qe6+ Rf5 19. Kc1! Kf3 20. Qe3+ Kg2 21. Qg1+ Kf3 22. Qf1+ Kg4 23. Qe2+ Rf3 24. Qe6+ Rf5 25. Kd1! a3! 26. Kc1 Kf3 27. Qe3+ Kg2 28. Qg1+ Kf3 29. Qf1+ Kg4 30. Qe2+ Rf3 31. Qe6+ Rf5 32. Kb1 Kf3 33. Qe3+ Kg2 34. Qg1+ Kf3 35. Qf1+ Kg4 36. Qe2+ Rf3 37. Qe6+ Rf5 38. Ka2 Kf3 39. Qe3+ Kg2 40. Qg1+ Kf3 41. Qf1+ Kg4 42. Qe2+ Rf3 43. Qe6+ Rf5 44. Kxa3 Kf3 45. Qe3+ Kg2 46. Qg1+ Kf3 47. Qf1+ Kg4 48. Qe2+ Rf3 49. Qe6+ Rf5 50. Kb2 Kf3 51. Qe3+ Kg2 52. Qg1+ Kf3 53. Qf1+ Kg4 54. Qe2+ Rf3 55. Qe6+ Rf5 56. Kc1 Kf3 57. Qe3+ Kg2 58. Qg1+ Kf3 59. Qf1+ Kg4 60. Qe2+ Rf3 61. Qe6+ Rf5 62. Kd1 a4! 63. Kc1 Kf3 64. Qe3+ Kg2 65. Qg1+ Kf3 66. Qf1+ Kg4 67. Qe2+ Rf3 68. Qe6+ Rf5 69. Kd1 a5! 70. Kc1 Kf3 71. Qe3+ Kg2 72. Qg1+ Kf3 73. Qf1+ Kg4 74. Qe2+ Rf3 75. Qe6+ Rf5 76. Kd1 a6! 77. Kc1 Kf3 78. Qe3+ Kg2 79. Qg1+ Kf3 80. Qf1+ Kg4 81. Qe2+ Rf3 82. Qe6+ Rf5 83. Kd1 a3 84. Kc1 Kf3 85. Qe3+ Kg2 86. Qg1+ Kf3 87. Qf1+ Kg4 88. Qe2+ Rf3 89. Qe6+ Rf5 90. Kb1 Kf3 91. Qe3+ Kg2 92. Qg1+ Kf3 93. Qf1+ Kg4 94. Qe2+ Rf3 95. Qe6+ Rf5 96. Ka2 Kf3 97. Qe3+ Kg2 98. Qg1+ Kf3 99. Qf1+ Kg4 100. Qe2+ Rf3 101. Qe6+ Rf5 102. Kxa3 Kf3 103. Qe3+ Kg2 104. Qg1+ Kf3 105. Qf1+ Kg4 106. Qe2+ Rf3 107. Qe6+ Rf5 108. Kb2 Kf3 109. Qe3+ Kg2 110. Qg1+ Kf3 111. Qf1+ Kg4 112. Qe2+ Rf3 113. Qe6+ Rf5 114. Kc1 Kf3 115. Qe3+ Kg2 116. Qg1+ Kf3 117. Qf1+ Kg4 118. Qe2+ Rf3 119. Qe6+ Rf5 120. Kd1 a4! 121. Kc1 Kf3 122. Qe3+ Kg2 123. Qg1+ Kf3 124. Qf1+ Kg4 125. Qe2+ Rf3 126. Qe6+ Rf5 127. Kd1 a5! 128. Kc1 Kf3 129. Qe3+ Kg2 130. Qg1+ Kf3 131. Qf1+ Kg4 132. Qe2+ Rf3 133. Qe6+ Rf5 134. Kd1 a3 135. Kc1 Kf3 136. Qe3+ Kg2 137. Qg1+ Kf3 138. Qf1+ Kg4 139. Qe2+ Rf3 140. Qe6+ Rf5 141. Kb1 Kf3 142. Qe3+ Kg2 143. Qg1+ Kf3 144. Qf1+ Kg4 145. Qe2+ Rf3 146. Qe6+ Rf5 147. Ka2 Kf3 148. Qe3+ Kg2 149. Qg1+ Kf3 150. Qf1+ Kg4 151. Qe2+ Rf3 152. Qe6+ Rf5 153. Kxa3 Kf3 154. Qe3+ Kg2 155. Qg1+ Kf3 156. Qf1+ Kg4 157. Qe2+ Rf3 158. Qe6+ Rf5 159. Kb2 Kf3 160. Qe3+ Kg2 161. Qg1+ Kf3 162. Qf1+ Kg4 163. Qe2+ Rf3 164. Qe6+ Rf5 165. Kc1 Kf3 166. Qe3+ Kg2 167. Qg1+ Kf3 168. Qf1+ Kg4 169. Qe2+ Rf3 170. Qe6+ Rf5 171. Kd1 a4 172. Kc1 Kf3 173. Qe3+ Kg2 174. Qg1+ Kf3 175. Qf1+ Kg4 176. Qe2+ Rf3 177. Qe6+ Rf5 178. Kd1 c4! 179. Kc1 Kf3 180. Qe3+ Kg2 181. Qg1+ Kf3 182. Qf1+ Ke4! 183. Qxc4+ Kf3 184. Qf1+ Kg4 185. Qe2+ Rf3 186. Qe6+ Rf5 187. Kd1 a3 188. Kc1 Kf3 189. Qe3+ Kg2 190. Qg1+ Kf3 191. Qf1+ Kg4 192. Qe2+ Rf3 193. Qe6+ Rf5 194. Kb1 Kf3 195. Qe3+ Kg2 196. Qg1+ Kf3 197. Qf1+ Kg4 198. Qe2+ Rf3 199. Qe6+ Rf5 200. Ka2 Kf3 201. Qe3+ Kg2 202. Qg1+ Kf3 203. Qf1+ Kg4 204. Qe2+ Rf3 205. Qe6+ Rf5 206. Kxa3 Kf3 207. Qe3+ Kg2 208. Qg1+ Kf3 209. Qf1+ Kg4 210. Qe2+ Rf3 211. Qe6+ Rf5 212. Kb2 Kf3 213. Qe3+ Kg2 214. Qg1+ Kf3 215. Qf1+ Kg4 216. Qe2+ Rf3 217. Qe6+ Rf5 218. Kc1 Kf3 219. Qe3+ Kg2 220. Qg1+ Kf3 221. Qf1+ Kg4 222. Qe2+ Rf3 223. Qe6+ Rf5 224. Kd1 Nf8,Nf6 225. Nf6+ Kf3 226. Qe2#

Based off of an earlier mate in 292 with an illegal position, this mate in 257 has as legal position with some minor duals in the solution.

[Title "Ottó Titusz Bláthy, Vielzügige Schachaufg 1889, Mate In 257 Legal Version of the #292"]
[FEN "q5nn/1pk1p3/p3P1p1/P3rpP1/1Kp1pP1p/8/2PQ1PP1/8 w - - 0 1"]

1. Qd7+ Kb8 2. Qd8+ Ka7 3. Qd4+ Rc5 4. Qxc5+ Kb8 5. Qe5+ Kc8 6. Qd5 Kc7 7. Qd7+ Kb8 8. Qd8+ Ka7 9. Qb6+ Kb8 10. c3 Kc8 11. Qc5+ Kb8 12. Qe5+ Kc8 13. Qd5 Kc7 14. Qd7+ Kb8 15. Qd8+ Ka7 16. Qb6+ Kb8 17. Ka3 Kc8 18. Qc5+ Kb8 19. Qe5+ Kc8 20. Qd5 Kc7 21. Qd7+ Kb8 22. Qd8+ Ka7 23. Qb6+ Kb8 24. Kb2 Kc8 25. Qc5+ Kb8 26. Qe5+ Kc8 27. Qd5 Kc7 28. Qd7+ Kb8 29. Qd8+ Ka7 30. Qb6+ Kb8 31. Kc1 Kc8 32. Qc5+ Kb8 33. Qe5+ Kc8 34. Qd5 Kc7 35. Qd7+ Kb8 36. Qd8+ Ka7 37. Qb6+ Kb8 38. Kd1 Kc8 39. Qc5+ Kb8 40. Qe5+ Kc8 41. Qd5 Kc7 42. Qd7+ Kb8 43. Qd8+ Ka7 44. Qb6+ Kb8 45. Ke2 Kc8 46. Qc5+ Kb8 47. Qe5+ Kc8 48. Qd5 Kc7 49. Qd7+ Kb8 50. Qd8+ Ka7 51. Qb6+ Kb8 52. Kf1 Kc8 53. Qc5+ Kb8 54. Qe5+ Kc8 55. Qd5 Kc7 56. Qd7+ Kb8 57. Qd8+ Ka7 58. Qb6+ Kb8 59. Kg1 Kc8 60. Qc5+ Kb8 61. Qe5+ Kc8 62. Qd5 Kc7 63. Qd7+ Kb8 64. Qd8+ Ka7 65. Qb6+ Kb8 66. Kh2 Kc8 67. Qc5+ Kb8 68. Qe5+ Kc8 69. Qd5 Kc7 70. Qd7+ Kb8 71. Qd8+ Ka7 72. Qb6+ Kb8 73. Kh3 Kc8 74. Qc5+ Kb8 75. Qe5+ Kc8 76. Qd5 Kc7 77. Qd7+ Kb8 78. Qd8+ Ka7 79. Qb6+ Kb8 80. Kxh4 Kc8 81. Qc5+ Kb8 82. Qe5+ Kc8 83. Qd5 Kc7 84. Qd7+ Kb8 85. Qd8+ Ka7 86. Qb6+ Kb8 87. Kh3 Kc8 88. Qc5+ Kb8 89. Qe5+ Kc8 90. Qd5 Kc7 91. Qd7+ Kb8 92. Qd8+ Ka7 93. Qb6+ Kb8 94. Kh2 Kc8 95. Qc5+ Kb8 96. Qe5+ Kc8 97. Qd5 Kc7 98. Qd7+ Kb8 99. Qd8+ Ka7 100. Qb6+ Kb8 101. Kg1 Kc8 102. Qc5+ Kb8 103. Qe5+ Kc8 104. Qd5 Kc7 105. Qd7+ Kb8 106. Qd8+ Ka7 107. Qb6+ Kb8 108. Kf1 Kc8 109. Qc5+ Kb8 110. Qe5+ Kc8 111. Qd5 Kc7 112. Qd7+ Kb8 113. Qd8+ Ka7 114. Qb6+ Kb8 115. Ke2 Kc8 116. Qc5+ Kb8 117. Qe5+ Kc8 118. Qd5 Kc7 119. Qd7+ Kb8 120. Qd8+ Ka7 121. Qb6+ Kb8 122. Kd1 Kc8 123. Qc5+ Kb8 124. Qe5+ Kc8 125. Qd5 Kc7 126. Qd7+ Kb8 127. Qd8+ Ka7 128. Qb6+ Kb8 129. Kc1 Kc8 130. Qc5+ Kb8 131. Qe5+ Kc8 132. Qd5 Kc7 133. Qd7+ Kb8 134. Qd8+ Ka7 135. Qb6+ Kb8 136. Kb2 Kc8 137. Qc5+ Kb8 138. Qe5+ Kc8 139. Qd5 Kc7 140. Qd7+ Kb8 141. Qd8+ Ka7 142. Qb6+ Kb8 143. Ka3 Kc8 144. Qc5+ Kb8 145. Qe5+ Kc8 146. Qd5 Kc7 147. Qd7+ Kb8 148. Qd8+ Ka7 149. Qb6+ Kb8 150. Kb4 Kc8 151. Qc5+ Kb8 152. Qe5+ Ka7 153. Qd4+ Kb8 154. Qxh8 Kc7 155. Qe5+ Kc8 156. Qd5 Kb8 157. Qd8+ Ka7 158. Qb6+ Kb8 159. Ka3 Kc8 160. Qc5+ Kb8 161. Qe5+ Kc8 162. Qd5 Kc7 163. Qd7+ Kb8 164. Qd8+ Ka7 165. Qb6+ Kb8 166. Kb2 Kc8 167. Qc5+ Kb8 168. Qe5+ Kc8 169. Qd5 Kc7 170. Qd7+ Kb8 171. Qd8+ Ka7 172. Qb6+ Kb8 173. Kc1 Kc8 174. Qc5+ Kb8 175. Qe5+ Kc8 176. Qd5 Kc7 177. Qd7+ Kb8 178. Qd8+ Ka7 179. Qb6+ Kb8 180. Kd1 Kc8 181. Qc5+ Kb8 182. Qe5+ Kc8 183. Qd5 Kc7 184. Qd7+ Kb8 185. Qd8+ Ka7 186. Qb6+ Kb8 187. Ke2 Kc8 188. Qc5+ Kb8 189. Qe5+ Kc8 190. Qd5 Kc7 191. Qd7+ Kb8 192. Qd8+ Ka7 193. Qb6+ Kb8 194. Kf1 Kc8 195. Qc5+ Kb8 196. Qe5+ Kc8 197. Qd5 Kc7 198. Qd7+ Kb8 199. Qd8+ Ka7 200. Qb6+ Kb8 201. Kg1 Kc8 202. Qc5+ Kb8 203. Qe5+ Kc8 204.Qd5 Kc7 205. Qd7+ Kb8 206. Qd8+ Ka7 207. Qb6+ Kb8 208. Kh2 Kc8 209. Qc5+ Kb8 210. Qe5+ Kc8 211. Qd5 Kc7 212. Qd7+ Kb8 213. Qd8+ Ka7 214. Qb6+ Kb8 215. Kh3 Kc8 216. Qc5+ Kb8 217. Qe5+ Kc8 218. Qd5 Kc7 219. Qd7+ Kb8 220. Qd8+ Ka7 221. Qb6+ Kb8 222. g4 Kc8 223. Qc5+ Kb8 224. Qe5+ Kc8 225. Qd5 Kc7 226. Qd7+ Kb8 227. Qd8+ Ka7 228. Qb6+ Kb8 229. gxf5 gxf5 230. Kh4 Kc8 231. Qc5+ Kb8 232. Qe5+ Kc8 233. Qd5 Kc7 234. Qd7+ Kb8 235. Qd8+ Ka7 236. Qb6+ Kb8 237. Kh5 Kc8 238. Qc5+ Kb8 239. Qe5+ Kc8 240. Qd5 Kc7 241. Qd7+ Kb8 242. Qd8+ Ka7 243. Qb6+ Kb8 244. Kg6 Kc8 245. Qc5+ Kb8 246. Qe5+ Kc8 247. Qd5 Kc7 248. Qd7+ Kb8 249. Qd8+ Ka7 250. Qb6+ Kb8 251. Kf7 Kc8 252. Ke8 Kb8 253. Kd7 e3 254. fxe3 Nf6+ 255. gxf6 exf6  256. e7 Qa7 257. e8=Q#  

Here is the longest problem that has a promoted piece and some minor duals in the solution.

[Title "Nenad Petrovic, Zagreb 1969, Mate In 271"]
[FEN "8/Bk3p1p/1P3p2/KP2n2p/1P1p4/1Pp2p2/B1P5/7B w - - 0 1"]

1. Bb1 h4 2. Ka4 Ka8 3. Ka3 Kb7 4. Ka2 Ka8 5. Ka1 Kb7 6. Ba2 Ka8 7. Kb1 Kb7 8. Kc1 Ka8 9. Kd1 Kb710. Ke1 Ka8 11. Bb1 Kb7 12. Kf1 Ka8 13. Kf2 Kb7 14. Ke1 Ka8 15. Kd1 Kb7 16. Kc1 Ka8 17. Ba2 Kb7 18. Kb1 Ka8 19. Ka1 Kb7 20. Bb1 Ka8 21. Ka2 Kb7 22. Ka3 Ka8 23. Ka4 Kb7 24. Ka5 f5 25. Ka4 Ka8 26. Ka3 Kb7 27. Ka2 Ka8 28. Ka1 Kb7 29. Ba2 Ka8 30. Kb1 Kb7 31. Kc1 Ka8 32. Kd1 Kb7 33. Ke1 Ka8 34. Bb1 Kb7 35. Kf1 Ka8 36. Kf2 Kb7 37. Ke1 Ka8 38. Kd1 Kb7 39. Kc1 Ka8 40. Ba2 Kb7 41. Kb1 Ka8 42. Ka1 Kb7 43. Bb1 Ka8 44. Ka2 Kb7 45. Ka3 Ka8 46. Ka4 Kb7 47. Ka5 f4 48. Ka4 Ka8 49. Ka3 Kb7 50. Ka2 Ka8 51. Ka1 Kb7 52. Ba2 Ka8 53. Kb1 Kb7 54. Kc1 Ka8 55. Kd1 Kb7 56. Bb1 Ka8 57. Ke1 Kb7 58. Kf1 Ka8 59. Kf2 Kb7 60. Ke1 Ka8 61. Kd1 Kb7 62. Kc1 Ka8 63. Ba2 Kb7 64. Kb1 Ka8 65. Ka1 Kb7 66. Bb1 Ka8 67. Ka2 Kb7 68. Ka3 Ka8 69. Ka4 Kb7 70. Ka5 f6 71. Ka4 Ka8 72. Ka3 Kb7 73. Ka2 Ka8 74. Ka1 Kb7 75. Ba2 Ka8 76. Kb1 Kb7 77. Kc1 Ka8 78. Kd1 Kb7 79. Ke1 Ka8 80. Bb1 Kb7 81. Kf1 Ka8 82. Kf2 Kb7 83. Ke1 Ka8 84. Kd1 Kb7 85. Kc1 Ka8 86. Ba2 Kb7 87. Kb1 Ka8 88. Ka1 Kb7 89. Bb1 Ka8 90. Ka2 Kb7 91. Ka3 Ka8 92. Ka4 Kb7 93. Ka5 f5 94. Ka4 Ka8 95. Ka3 Kb7 96. Ka2 Ka8 97. Ka1 Kb7 98. Ba2 Ka8 99. Kb1 Kb7 100. Kc1 Ka8 101. Kd1 Kb7 102. Ke1 Ka8 103. Bb1 Kb7 104. Kf1 Ka8 105. Kf2 Kb7 106. Ke1 Ka8 107. Kd1 Kb7 108. Kc1 Ka8 109. Ba2 Kb7 110. Kb1 Ka8 111. Ka1 Kb7 112. Bb1 Ka8 113. Ka2 Kb7 114. Ka3 Ka8 115. Ka4 Kb7. 116. Ka5 h3 117. Ka4 Ka8 118. Ka3 Kb7 119. Ka2 Ka8 120. Ka1 Kb7 121. Ba2 Ka8 122. Kb1 Kb7 123. Kc1 Ka8 124. Kd1 Kb7 125. Ke1 Ka8 126. Bb1 Kb7 127. Kf1 Ka8 128. Kf2 Kb7 129. Ke1 Ka8 130. Kd1 Kb7 131. Kc1 Ka8 132. Ba2 Kb7 133. Kb1 Ka8 134. Ka1 Kb7 135. Bb1 Ka8 136. Ka2 Kb7 137. Ka3 Ka8 138. Ka4 Kb7 139. Ka5 h2 140. Ka4 Ka8 141. Ka3 Kb7 142. Ka2 Ka8 143. Ka1 Kb7 144. Ba2 Ka8 145. Kb1 Kb7 146. Kc1 Ka8 147. Kd1 Kb7 148. Ke1 Ka8 149. Bb1 Kb7 150. Kf1 Ka8 151. Kf2 Kb7 152. Ke1 Ka8 153. Kd1 Kb7 154. Kc1 Ka8 155. Ba2 Kb7 156. Kb1 Ka8 157. Ka1 Kb7 158. Bb1 Ka8 159. Ka2 Kb7 160. Ka3 Ka8 161. Ka4 Kb7 162. Ka5 h6 163. Ka4 Ka8 164. Ka3 Kb7 165. Ka2 Ka8 166. Ka1 Kb7 167. Ba2 Ka8 168. Kb1 Kb7 169. Kc1 Ka8 170. Kd1 Kb7 171. Ke1 Ka8 172. Bb1 Kb7 173. Kf1 Ka8 174. Kf2 Kb7 175. Ke1 Ka8 176. Kd1 Kb7 177. Kc1 Ka8 178. Ba2 Kb7 179. Kb1 Ka8 180. Ka1 Kb7 181. Bb1 Ka8 182. Ka2 Kb7 183. Ka3 Ka8 184. Ka4 Kb7 185. Ka5 h5 186. Ka4 Ka8 187. Ka3 Kb7 188. Ka2 Ka8 189. Ka1 Kb7 190. Ba2 Ka8 191. Kb1 Kb7 192. Kc1 Ka8 193. Kd1 Kb7 194. Ke1 Ka8 195. Bb1 Kb7 196. Kf1 Ka8 197. Kf2 Kb7 198. Ke1 Ka8 199. Kd1 Kb7 200. Kc1 Ka8 201. Ba2 Kb7 202. Kb1 Ka8 203. Ka1 Kb7 204. Bb1 Ka8 205. Ka2 Kb7 206. Ka3 Ka8 207. Ka4 Kb7 208. Ka5 h4 209. Ka4 Ka8 210. Ka3 Kb7 211. Ka2 Ka8 212. Ka1 Kb7 213. Ba2 Ka8 214. Kb1 Kb7 215. Kc1 Ka8 216. Kd1 Kb7 217. Ke1 Ka8 218. Bb1 Kb7 219. Kf1 Ka8 220. Kf2 Kb7 221. Ke1 Ka8 222. Kd1 Kb7 223. Kc1 Ka8 224. Ba2 Kb7 225. Kb1 Ka8 226. Ka1 Kb7 227. Bb1 Ka8 228. Ka2 Kb7 229. Ka3 Ka8 230. Ka4 Kb7 231. Ka5 h3 232. Ka4 Ka8 233. Ka3 Kb7 234. Ka2 Ka8 235. Ka1 Kb7 236. Ba2 Ka8 237. Kb1 Kb7 238. Kc1 Ka8 239. Kd1 Kb7 240. Ke1 Ka8 241. Bb1 Kb7 242. Kf1 Ka8 243. Kf2 Kb7 244. Ke1 Ka8 245. Kd1 Kb7 246. Kc1 Ka8 247. Ba2 Kb7 248. Kb1 Ka8 249. Ka1 Kb7 250. Bb1 Ka8 251. Ka2 Kb7 252. Ka3 Ka8 253. Ka4 Kb7 254. Ka5 Kc8 255. Ka6 Kd8 256. b7 Nd7 257. Bxf3 h1=Q 258. Bxh1 d3 259. cxd3 f3 260. Bxf3 Ke7 261. b8=Q Nxb8+ 262. Bxb8 c2 263. Bxc2 Ke6 264. b6 Kf6 265. b7 Ke6 266. d4 h2 267. Bxh2 f4 268. b8=Q Kf7 269. Bxf4  Kg7 270. Bh5 Kf6 271. Qe5#

In regards to the longest known correct checkmate in an illegal position that uses just pieces from the chess box, as Blathy repurposed the the light squared bishop onto a dark square.

Note-Althogh Blathy is known to have composed to slightly longer dualed, illegal mate in 292 moves, that problem is cooked, meaning it is incorrect and has a shorter solution although I still searching for an exact mention of where in the problem are the moves that Blathy missed in his analysis.

[Title "Otto Blathy, Weihnachtsgrüße 12/1929, Mate In 290"]
[FEN "bBrb1B2/P1n1r2p/1Kp1Pb1p/2pk1P1p/5P2/1P2pP2/1pP1P3/1R4n1 w - - 0 1"]

1. Rd1+ Bd4 2. c4+ Kd6 3. Rxg1 Bc3 4. Rd1+ Bd4 5. Ka5 Bb7 6. Ka4 Ba8 7. Ka3 Bb7 8. Ka2 Ba8 9. Kb1 Bb7 10. Kc2 Ba8 11. Kd3 Bb7 12. Re1 Ba8 13. Rf1 Bb7 14. Rd1 Ba8 15. Kc2 Bb7 16. Kb1 Ba8 17. Ka2 Bb7 18. Ka3 Ba8 19. Ka4 Bb7 20. Ka5 Ba8 21. Kb6 h4 22. Ka5 Bb7 23. Ka4 Ba8 24. Ka3 Bb7 25. Ka2 Ba8 26. Kb1 Bb7 27. Kc2 Ba8 28. Kd3 Bb7 29. Rf1 Ba8 30. Re1 Bb7 31. Rd1 Ba8 32. Kc2 Bb7 33. Kb1 Ba8 34. Ka2 Bb7 35. Ka3 Ba8 36. Ka4 Bb7 37. Ka5 Ba8 38. Kb6 h3 39. Ka5 Bb7 40. Ka4 Ba8 41. Ka3 Bb7 42. Ka2 Ba8 43. Kb1 Bb7 44. Kc2 Ba8 45. Kd3 Bb7 46. Rf1 Ba8 47. Re1 Bb7 48. Rd1 Ba8 49. Kc2 Bb7 50. Kb1 Ba8 51. Ka2 Bb7 52. Ka3 Ba8 53. Ka4 Bb7 54. Ka5 Ba8 55. Kb6 h2 56. Ka5 Bb7 57. Ka4 Ba8 58. Ka3 Bb7 59. Ka2 Ba8 60. Kb1 Bb7 61. Kc2 Ba8 62. Kd3 Bb7 63. Rf1 Ba8 64. Re1 Bb7 65. Rd1 Ba8 66. Kc2 Bb7 67. Kb1 Ba8 68. Ka2 Bb7 69. Ka3 Ba8 70. Ka4 Bb7 71. Ka5 Ba8 72. Kb6 h5 73. Ka5 Bb7 74. Ka4 Ba8 75. Ka3 Bb7 76. Ka2 Ba8 77. Kb1 Bb7 78. Kc2 Ba8 79. Kd3 Bb7 80. Rf1 Ba8 81. Re1 Bb7 82. Rd1 Ba8 83. Kc2 Bb7 84. Kb1 Ba8 85. Ka2 Bb7 86. Ka3 Ba8 87. Ka4 Bb7 88. Ka5 Ba8 89. Kb6 h4 90. Ka5 Bb7 91. Ka4 Ba8 92. Ka3 Bb7 93. Ka2 Ba8 94. Kb1 Bb7 95. Kc2 Ba8 96. Kd3 Bb7 97. Rf1 Ba8 98. Re1 Bb7 99. Rd1 Ba8 100. Kc2 Bb7 101. Kb1 Ba8 102. Ka2 Bb7 103. Ka3 Ba8 104. Ka4 Bb7 105. Ka5 Ba8 106. Kb6 h3 107. Ka5 Bb7 108. Ka4 Ba8 109. Ka3 Bb7 110. Ka2 Ba8 111. Kb1 Bb7 112. Kc2 Ba8 113. Kd3 Bb7 114. Rf1 Ba8 115. Re1 Bb7 116. Rd1 Ba8 117. Kc2 Bb7 118. Kb1 Ba8 119. Ka2 Bb7 120. Ka3 Ba8 121. Ka4 Bb7 122. Ka5 Ba8 123. Kb6 h6 124. Ka5 Bb7 125. Ka4 Ba8 126. Ka3 Bb7 127. Ka2 Ba8 128. Kb1 Bb7 129. Kc2 Ba8 130. Kd3 Bb7  131. Rf1 Ba8 132. Re1 Bb7 133. Rd1 Ba8 134. Kc2 Bb7 135. Kb1 Ba8 136. Ka2 Bb7 137. Ka3 Ba8 138. Ka4 Bb7 139. Ka5 Ba8 140. Kb6 h5 141. Ka5 Bb7 142. Ka4 Ba8 143. Ka3 Bb7 144. Ka2 Ba8 145. Kb1 Bb7 146. Kc2 Ba8 147. Kd3 Bb7 148. Rf1 Ba8 149. Re1 Bb7 150. Rd1 Ba8 151. Kc2 Bb7 152. Kb1 Ba8 153. Ka2 Bb7 154. Ka3 Ba8 155. Ka4 Bb7 156. Ka5 Ba8 157. Kb6 h4 158. Ka5 Bb7 159. Ka4 Ba8 160. Ka3 Bb7 161. Ka2 Ba8 162. Kb1 Bb7 163. Kc2 Ba8 164. Kd3 Bb7 165. Rf1 Ba8 166. Re1 Bb7 167. Rd1 Ba8 168. Kc2 Bb7 169. Kb1 Ba8 170. Ka2 Bb7 171. Ka3 Ba8 172. Ka4 Bb7 173. Ka5 Ba8 174. Kb6 h1=Q 175. Rxh1 Bg7 176. Rd1+ Bd4 177. Ka5 Bb7 178. Ka4 Ba8 179. Ka3 Bb7 180. Ka2 Ba8 181. Kb1 Bb7 182. Kc2 Ba8 183. Kd3 Bb7 184. Rf1 Ba8 185. Re1 Bb7 186. Rd1 Ba8 187. Kc2 Bb7 188. Kb1 Ba8 189. Ka2 Bb7 190. Ka3 Ba8 191. Ka4 Bb7 192. Ka5 Ba8 193. Kb6 h2 194. Ka5 Bb7 195. Ka4 Ba8 196. Ka3 Bb7 197. Ka2 Ba8 198. Kb1 Bb7 199. Kc2 Ba8 200. Kd3 Bb7 201. Rf1 Ba8 202. Re1 Bb7 203. Rd1 Ba8 204. Kc2 Bb7 205. Kb1 Ba8 206. Ka2 Bb7 207. Ka3 Ba8 208. Ka4 Bb7 209. Ka5 Ba8 210. Kb6 h3 211. Ka5 Bb7 212. Ka4 Ba8 213. Ka3 Bb7 214. Ka2 Ba8 215. Kb1 Bb7 216. Kc2 Ba8 217. Kd3 Bb7 218. Rf1 Ba8 219. Re1 Bb7 220. Rd1 Ba8 221. Kc2 Bb7 222. Kb1 Ba8 223. Ka2 Bb7 224. Ka3 Ba8 225. Ka4 Bb7 226. Ka5 Ba8 227. Kb6 h1=Q 228. Rxh1 Bg7 229. Rd1+ Bd4 230. Ka5 Bb7 231. Ka4 Ba8 232. Ka3 Bb7 233. Ka2 Ba8 234. Kb1 Bb7 235. Kc2 Ba8 236. Kd3 Bb7 237. Rf1 Ba8 238. Re1 Bb7 239. Rd1 Ba8 240. Kc2 Bb7 241. Kb1 Ba8 242. Ka2 Bb7 243. Ka3 Ba8 244. Ka4 Bb7 245. Ka5 Ba8 246. Kb6 h2 247. Ka5 Bb7 248. Ka4 Ba8 249. Ka3 Bb7 250. Ka2 Ba8 251. Kb1 Bb7 252. Kc2 Ba8 253. Kd3 Bb7 254. Rf1 Ba8 255. Re1 Bb7 256. Rd1 Ba8 257. Kc2 Bb7 258. Kb1 Ba8 259. Ka2 Bb7 260. Ka3 Ba8 261. Ka4 Bb7 262. Ka5 Ba8 263. Kb6 h1=Q 264. Rxh1 Bg7 265. Rd1+ Bd4 266. Ka5 Bb7 267. Ka4 Ba8 268. Ka3 Bb7 269. Ka2 Ba8 270. Kb1 Bb7 271. Kc2 Ba8 272. Kd3 Bb7 273. Rf1 Ba8 274. Re1 Bb7 275. Rd1 Ba8 276. Kc2 Bb7 277. Kb1 Ba8 278. Ka2 Bb7 279. Ka3 Ba8 280. Ka4 Bb7 281. Ka5 Ba8 282. Kb6 Bb7 283. Kxb7 b1=Q 284. Rxb1 Be5 285. Rd1+ Bd4 286. Rxd4+ cxd4 287. Kb6 d3 288. a8=Q Rxb8+ 289. Qxb8 dxe2 290. Qxd8#

Lastly, if you allow any amount of illegal material, with no first/last rank pawns and one king per side of course, here is a mate in 415 that is an extension of Blathy's above mate in 290.

 [FEN "bBrb1B2/P1n1r1bp/pKp1P2p/2pk1P1p/5P1p/1P2pP1p/1pP1P2p/1R5n w - - 0 1"]

1. Rd1+ Bd4 2. c4+ Kd6 3. Rxh1 Bc3 4. Rd1+ Bd4 5. Ka5 Bb7 6. Ka4 Ba8 7. Ka3 Bb7 8. Ka2 Ba8 9. Kb1 Bb7 10. Kc2 Ba8 11. Kd3 Bb7 12. Rh1 Ba8 13. Rf1 Bb7 14. Rd1 Ba8 15. Kc2 Bb7 16. Kb1 Ba8 17. Ka2 Bb7 18. Ka3 Ba8 19. Ka4 Bb7 20. Ka5 Ba8 21. Kb6 h1=Q 22. Rxh1 Bc3 23. Rd1+ Bd4 24. Ka5 Bb7 25. Ka4 Ba8 26. Ka3 Bb7 27. Ka2 Ba8 28. Kb1 Bb7 29. Kc2 Ba8 30. Kd3 Bb7 31. Rh1 Ba8 32. Rf1 Bb7 33. Rd1 Ba8 34. Kc2 Bb7 35. Kb1 Ba8 36. Ka2 Bb7 37. Ka3 Ba8 38. Ka4 Bb7 39. Ka5 Ba8 40. Kb6 h2 41. Ka5 Bb7 42. Ka4 Ba8 43. Ka3 Bb7 44. Ka2 Ba8 45. Kb1 Bb7 46. Kc2 Ba8 47. Kd3 Bb7 48. Rh1 Ba8 49. Rf1 Bb7 50. Rd1 Ba8 51. Kc2 Bb7 52. Kb1 Ba8 53. Ka2 Bb7 54. Ka3 Ba8 55. Ka4 Bb7 56. Ka5 Ba8 57. Kb6 h3 58. Ka5 Bb7 59. Ka4 Ba8 60. Ka3 Bb7 61. Ka2 Ba8 62. Kb1 Bb7 63. Kc2 Ba8 64. Kd3 Bb7 65. Rh1 Ba8 66. Rf1 Bb7 67. Rd1 Ba8 68. Kc2 Bb7 69. Kb1 Ba8 70. Ka2 Bb7 71. Ka3 Ba8 72. Ka4 Bb7 73. Ka5 Ba8 74. Kb6 h4 75. Ka5 Bb7 76. Ka4 Ba8 77. Ka3 Bb7 78. Ka2 Ba8 79. Kb1 Bb7 80. Kc2 Ba8 81. Kd3 Bb7 82. Rh1 Ba8 83. Rf1 Bb7 84. Rd1 Ba8 85. Kc2 Bb7 86. Kb1 Ba8 87. Ka2 Bb7 88. Ka3 Ba8 89. Ka4 Bb7 90. Ka5 Ba8 91. Kb6 h5 92. Ka5 Bb7 93. Ka4 Ba8 94. Ka3 Bb7 95. Ka2 Ba8 96. Kb1 Bb7 97. Kc2 Ba8 98. Kd3 Bb7 99. Rh1 Ba8 100. Rf1 Bb7 101. Rd1 Ba8 102. Kc2 Bb7 103. Kb1 Ba8 104. Ka2 Bb7 105. Ka3 Ba8 106. Ka4 Bb7 107. Ka5 Ba8 108. Kb6 h6 109. Ka5 Bb7 110. Ka4 Ba8 111. Ka3 Bb7 112. Ka2 Ba8  113. Kb1 Bb7 114. Kc2 Ba8 115. Kd3 Bb7 116. Rh1 Ba8 117. Rf1 Bb7 118. Rd1 Ba8 119. Kc2 Bb7 120. Kb1 Ba8 121. Ka2 Bb7 122. Ka3 Ba8 123. Ka4 Bb7 124. Ka5 Ba8 125. Kb6 h1=Q 126. Rxh1 Bc3 127. Rd1+ Bd4 128. Ka5 Bb7 129. Ka4 Ba8 130. Ka3 Bb7 131. Ka2 Ba8 132. Kb1 Bb7 133. Kc2 Ba8 134. Kd3 Bb7 135. Rh1 Ba8 136. Rf1 Bb7 137. Rd1 Ba8 138. Kc2 Bb7 139. Kb1 Ba8 140. Ka2 Bb7 141. Ka3 Ba8 142. Ka4 Bb7 143. Ka5 Ba8 144. Kb6 h2 145. Ka5 Bb7 146. Ka4 Ba8 147. Ka3 Bb7 148. Ka2 Ba8 149. Kb1 Bb7 150. Kc2 Ba8 151. Kd3 Bb7 152. Rh1 Ba8 153. Rf1 Bb7 154. Rd1 Ba8 155. Kc2 Bb7 156. Kb1 Ba8 157. Ka2 Bb7 158. Ka3 Ba8 159. Ka4 Bb7 160. Ka5 Ba8 161. Kb6 h3 162. Ka5 Bb7 163. Ka4 Ba8 164. Ka3 Bb7 165. Ka2 Ba8 166. Kb1 Bb7 167. Kc2 Ba8 168. Kd3 Bb7 169. Rh1 Ba8 170. Rf1 Bb7 171. Rd1 Ba8 172. Kc2 Bb7 173. Kb1 Ba8 174. Ka2 Bb7 175. Ka3 Ba8 176. Ka4 Bb7 177. Ka5 Ba8 178. Kb6 h4 179. Ka5 Bb7 180. Ka4 Ba8 181. Ka3 Bb7 182. Ka2 Ba8 183. Kb1 Bb7 184. Kc2 Ba8 185. Kd3 Bb7 186. Rh1 Ba8 187. Rf1 Bb7 188. Rd1 Ba8 189. Kc2 Bb7 190. Kb1 Ba8 191. Ka2 Bb7 192. Ka3 Ba8 193. Ka4 Bb7 194. Ka5 Ba8 195. Kb6 h5 196. Ka5 Bb7 197. Ka4 Ba8 198. Ka3 Bb7 199. Ka2 Ba8 200. Kb1 Bb7 201. Kc2 Ba8 202. Kd3 Bb7 203. Rh1 Ba8 204. Rf1 Bb7 205. Rd1 Ba8 206. Kc2 Bb7 207. Kb1 Ba8 208. Ka2 Bb7 209. Ka3 Ba8 210. Ka4 Bb7 211. Ka5 Ba8 212. Kb6 h1=Q 213. Rxh1 Bc3 214. Rd1+ Bd4 215. Ka5 Bb7 216. Ka4 Ba8 217. Ka3 Bb7 218. Ka2 Ba8 219. Kb1 Bb7 220. Kc2 Ba8 221. Kd3 Bb7 222. Rh1 Ba8 223. Rf1 Bb7 224. Rd1 Ba8 225. Kc2 Bb7 226. Kb1 Ba8 227. Ka2 Bb7 228. Ka3 Ba8 229. Ka4 Bb7 230. Ka5 Ba8 231. Kb6 h2 232. Ka5 Bb7 233. Ka4 Ba8 234. Ka3 Bb7 235. Ka2 Ba8 236. Kb1 Bb7 237. Kc2 Ba8 238. Kd3 Bb7 239. Rh1 Ba8 240. Rf1 Bb7 241. Rd1 Ba8 242. Kc2 Bb7 243. Kb1 Ba8 244. Ka2 Bb7 245. Ka3 Ba8 246. Ka4 Bb7 247. Ka5 Ba8 248. Kb6 h3 249. Ka5 Bb7 250. Ka4 Ba8 251. Ka3 Bb7 252. Ka2 Ba8 253. Kb1 Bb7 254. Kc2 Ba8 255. Kd3 Bb7 256. Rh1 Ba8 257. Rf1 Bb7 258. Rd1 Ba8 259. Kc2 Bb7 260. Kb1 Ba8 261. Ka2 Bb7 262. Ka3 Ba8 263. Ka4 Bb7 264. Ka5 Ba8 265. Kb6 h4 266. Ka5 Bb7 267. Ka4 Ba8 268. Ka3 Bb7 269. Ka2 Ba8 270. Kb1 Bb7 271. Kc2 Ba8 272. Kd3 Bb7 273. Rh1 Ba8 274. Rf1 Bb7 275. Rd1 Ba8 276. Kc2 Bb7 277. Kb1 Ba8 278. Ka2 Bb7 279. Ka3 Ba8 280. Ka4 Bb7 281. Ka5 Ba8 282. Kb6 h1=Q 283. Rxh1 Bc3 284. Rd1+ Bd4 285. Ka5 Bb7 286. Ka4 Ba8 287. Ka3 Bb7 288. Ka2 Ba8 289. Kb1 Bb7 290. Kc2 Ba8 291. Kd3 Bb7 292. Rh1 Ba8 293. Rf1 Bb7 294. Rd1 Ba8 295. Kc2 Bb7 296. Kb1 Ba8 297. Ka2 Bb7 298. Ka3 Ba8 299. Ka4 Bb7 300. Ka5 Ba8 301. Kb6 h2 302. Ka5 Bb7 303. Ka4 Ba8 304. Ka3 Bb7 305. Ka2 Ba8 306. Kb1 Bb7 307. Kc2 Ba8 308. Kd3 Bb7 309. Rh1 Ba8 310. Rf1 Bb7 311. Rd1 Ba8 312. Kc2 Bb7 313. Kb1 Ba8 314. Ka2 Bb7 315. Ka3 Ba8 316. Ka4 Bb7 317. Ka5 Ba8 318. Kb6 h3 319. Ka5 Bb7 320. Ka4 Ba8 321. Ka3 Bb7 322. Ka2 Ba8 323. Kb1 Bb7 324. Kc2 Ba8 325. Kd3 Bb7 326. Rh1 Ba8 327. Rf1 Bb7 328. Rd1 Ba8 329. Kc2 Bb7 330. Kb1 Ba8 331. Ka2 Bb7 332. Ka3 Ba8 333. Ka4 Bb7 334. Ka5 Ba8 335. Kb6 h1=Q 336. Rxh1 Bc3 337. Rd1+ Bd4 338. Ka5 Bb7 339. Ka4 Ba8 340. Ka3 Bb7 341. Ka2 Ba8 342. Kb1 Bb7 343. Kc2 Ba8 344. Kd3 Bb7 345. Rh1 Ba8 346. Rf1 Bb7 347. Rd1 Ba8 348. Kc2 Bb7 349. Kb1 Ba8 350. Ka2 Bb7 351. Ka3 Ba8 352. Ka4 Bb7 353. Ka5 Ba8 354. Kb6 h2 355. Ka5 Bb7 356. Ka4 Ba8 357. Ka3 Bb7 358. Ka2 Ba8 359. Kb1 Bb7 360. Kc2 Ba8 361. Kd3 Bb7 362. Rh1 Ba8 363. Rf1 Bb7 364. Rd1 Ba8 365. Kc2 Bb7 366. Kb1 Ba8 367. Ka2 Bb7 368. Ka3 Ba8 369. Ka4 Bb7 370. Ka5 Ba8 371. Kb6 h1=Q 372. Rxh1 Bc3 373. Rd1+ Bd4 374. Ka5 Bb7 375. Ka4 Ba8 376. Ka3 Bb7 377. Ka2 Ba8 378. Kb1 Bb7 379. Kc2 Ba8 380. Kd3 Bb7 381. Rh1 Ba8 382. Rf1 Bb7 383. Rd1 Ba8 384. Kc2 Bb7 385. Kb1 Ba8 386. Ka2 Bb7 387. Ka3 Ba8 388. Ka4 Bb7 389. Ka5 Ba8 390. Kb6 a5 391. Kxa5 Bb7 392. Ka4 Ba8 393. Ka3 Bb7 394. Ka2 Ba8 395. Kb1 Bb7 396. Kc2 Ba8 397. Kd3 Bb7 398. Rh1 Ba8 399. Rf1 Bb7 400. Rd1 Ba8 401. Kc2 Bb7 402. Kb1 Ba8 403. Ka2 Bb7 404. Ka3 Ba8 405. Ka4 Bb7 406. Ka5 Ba8 407. Kb6 Bb7 408. Kxb7 b1=Q 409. Rxb1 Be5 410. Rd1+ Bd4 411. Rxd4+ cxd4 412. Kb6 d3 413. a8=Q Rxb8+ 414. Qxb8 d2 415. Qxd8# 

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