I was not sure that I could answer this question because there are so many non-standard types of positions in the Winawer, and it covers entire books. I am primarily going to discuss the famous main line, and what its basic ideas are for both sides.
The main line is where white plays an early Qg4, and attacks the black kingside. The main ideas for both sides in their simplest forms are that white is trying to take on g7 and h7, and eventually queen the h-pawn...simplistic, but accurate, but nevertheless, a long way from fruition.
In the meantime, black is playing to rip apart the center with c5, cxd4/dxc3, castle long, and take on e5, sometimes via a sacrifice (with the queen on c7 and after f4 by white) to attack the white king, which is usually stranded in the center. After this potential sacrifice, there may also be tactical ideas against the wayward white queen trapping it. If black can open the center successfully, and make the center pawns count by advancing them, and using the center to open lines to the white king, the white king will not be safe and often perish. Obviously, this general plan is VERY tactical, and requires a lot of book knowledge, and calculation during the game once you have left book. This main line is so sharp (even the description sounds sharp) that there are not a lot more generalities that I can add since they are very specific to the positions that arise.
The problem is what happens when white, and this happens a lot at lower levels, decides not to play into that mainline scheme because of being afraid of theory? There is too much here, and goes beyond the scope of one SE question. That leaves a lot of different possibilities from not playing either e5 (Anti-Winawer with cxd5, Bd3, or even Qd3 among others) or a3 (Semi-Winawer with Bd2 primarily) at all, to exchanging on d5, which bring up radically different plans. White can also play positionally with Nf4 and a4.
Instead of 4...c5, you can also opt for 4...Ne7, which aims for a more closed game, and to avoid the sharpest lines, but I tend to think that black does well playing the main line.
As I looked at my library, and looked up books specifically on the Winawer, I found two books that I would recommend.
I do not own this book, but based on the Amazon "Look Inside" feature, it is one of the most impressive opening books I have ever seen in terms of spelling out the ideas, especially in a complicated opening:
"The Wonderful Winawer: Strategic Ideas & Surprise Weapons for Dynamic Chess Players" by GM Viktor Moskalenko
The second book, "Winning With the French", and I do own this one, is by GM Wolfgang Uhlmann, who was probably THE authority on the French during his peak years, and never played anything but the French in response to 1.e4 during his career (or so they say). The book is exclusively taken from 60 of his games, and the explanations are very good, but watching how a master of this opening handles it will be invaluable.
Lastly, I also suggest studying the games of Viktor Kortchnoi, another noted expert on the French.