Which openings and middle game tactics are highly used when a player utilizes a hypermodern style of gameplay? What particular tactics are most effective when playing hypermodern?
This website does a good job of explaining some principles:
as well as this piece by Eric Schiller:
One of the early pioneers, if not the actual founder of the Hypermodern style was Richard Reti, early in the 20th century. An example of this kind of play is his own Reti Opening.
The theory behind this is that center pawns on the fourth rank (or further) can become weak as well as strong. So the idea is to move out knights first, then pawns to the third rank, followed by bishops, etc. Then wait till the opponent commits his pawns to (his) fourth rank (your fifth) before deciding when to move yours to your fourth rank.
An "extreme" example is Alekhine's defense, when Black plays
1... Nf6 in response to
1. e4, to provoke further White advances, and (presuambly), weaknesses. The disadvantage to Black of moving the knight around seems to offset whatever disadvantages White may incur by advancing his pawns. Alekhine's Defense variation, understanding white's overextended pawns, black's multiple early knight moves
But if White opens
1. Nf3, he deters
...e5, and limits Black to playing
...d6, if he wants to enforce
...e5). Hence, "hypermodern" openings beginning with knight moves seem to work better for White, who has the advantage of the first move. This advantage does give White a number of options, including playing "colors reversed" openings with an extra move that Black doesn't have.
Richard Reti's book 'Modern Ideas in Chess' can be read in full here.
It is an amazing book!
Disclaimer: I am among the authors of the site ;)