No, it would not be possible for such a database to exist. Calculating it would require an infeasibly large computer and the calculation would take so long that your computer wouldn't exist for long enough to complete the task.
Claude Shannon estimated that there are around 1043 possible positions in chess and your database would need to store the outcome of all of these (this would be, essentially, a 32-man tablebase). However, it is estimated that the Earth contains only about 1050 atoms so, even if you could build a memory cell out of just 10,000,000 atoms, you would still need a computer the size of the Earth just to store all the positions.
But such a huge computer brings big problems. The earth's diameter is about 12,800 kilometres and light takes about 43ms to cross that distance. That means that, if a clock cycle lasts longer than 43ms, then not only do you have horrible clock skew but different parts of your computer aren't even on the same clock cycle. Avoiding this limits your clock speed to about 23.5Hz (not GHz or MHz; just Hz). Even if you could completely evaluate a position in a single clock cycle, that means your computer would take about 4.3x1041 seconds to complete its task. That's about 1.4x1034 years. That's 14 million billion billion billion years.
Astrophysicists believe that the universe will look radically different in 1.4x1034 years than it does now. By then, stars will have long ago ceased to exist and even elements that are in no meaningful sense radioactive will have undergone large amounts of radioactive decay. Even the protons that form atomic nuclei will have undergone significant radioactive decay. So your earth-sized computer simply won't exist any more.