The computer analysis on a game I played tells me that in the following position, White should have played
c4 instead of
[fen "r3qrk1/pppb1ppp/1nn1p3/6B1/3PP3/P1P2N2/4BPPP/R2Q1RK1 w - - 0 1"]
The engine (Stockfish 10 from Lichess.org) tells me that
c4 would have given White an advantage of +2.2, compared to +0.9 with
e5, so it's quite a difference.
I don't see any immediate tactical win with
c4, and while it would give White some extra space, so does
e5 results in a pawn structure that points to Black's king (I've heard that you should attack in the direction your pawn structure points to), plus covers
f6 in case Black wants to move his f pawn there.
c4 also results in three pawns being aligned on the 4th rank, which I am not very comfortable with.