These days many online chess websites offer a board evaluation rating, often a bar, sometimes a number, sometimes both, as is the case here (see two red circles): Black will take a pawn soon, so the evaluation is -0.9 pawns to white. Note that there are two components to the score. First, there's a raw score due to some sort of piece scoring system. Second, there's a positional evaluation scoring element that considers future moves and future pieces that might be taken. Seems clear, right?
Not exactly. Consider, near the end of the game, a pawn can get converted into a queen. Using the most popular piece-ranking systems, a pawn=1 can switch to a queen=~9 via this process. Therefore, if a player is a pawn ahead, and players play well, eventually, on average, one can expect that this might get promoted to a queen. Perhaps if you averaged it would be 3 (wild guess) considering that most other pieces can't get promoted. Anyway, one can see that the second term in the ranking scoring system has a look-ahead variability in that lopsidedness will increase in positive feedback fashion such that a 1 is much higher the further an engine looks ahead. This positive feedback would exist even without promotions.
My question is just how many moves these engine look ahead in ranking static boards.