The FIDE Laws of Chess provide some guidance.
Rule 6.2.1 says you must move the piece before hitting the clock:
During the game each player, having made his move on the chessboard, shall stop his own clock and start his opponent’s clock (that is to say, he shall press his clock). This “completes” the move.
According to rule 8.1.2, you must move the piece before writing down the move, usually:
It is forbidden to write the moves in advance, unless the player is claiming a draw according to Article 9.2, or 9.3 or adjourning a game
There is a little bit of flexibility as to when exactly you write down the moves, according to 8.1.3:
A player may reply to his opponent’s move before recording it, if he so wishes. He must record his previous move before making another.
So, you must move the piece before doing anything else. Ordinarily, you would then hit the clock, and finally you would write down the move. I am not sure if it would be a violation of 8.1 to write the move after moving the piece but before hitting the clock - technically, the move is not "completed" until the clock is hit - but it gives no benefit to do so. In practice I've only seen it when someone forgets to hit the clock altogether.
Offering a draw is done after making the move but before hitting the clock, and claiming a draw is done by writing down the move but not playing it, and seeking the arbiter.
The 5-fold repetition and 75-move rule may be claimed by the arbiter whenever applicable, so you can't really give them any set place in the order.
This gives us the following order:
(1) If claiming a draw:
- Write move (if this move is required for draw)
- Stop clocks (not required, but wise)
- Declare draw claim to arbiter
- If claim is upheld, game is over
(2) Make your move on the board
- If this move results in checkmate, stalemate, or dead position, game is over
(3) If offering a draw, offer draw to opponent
- If opponent accepts draw, game is over
- If opponent declines, or delays decision, proceed to (4)
(4) Press clock
- (Probably this could be done after (5), but this order is preferred)
(5) Write move