In order to improve you need to 1) study theory, 2) play games and 3) analyze those games. Repeat until you are world champion.
Specifically to these steps....
As a beginner your biggest concern should be tactics. Start training yourself to always be aware of which pieces/squares are attacked, so that you don't blunder pieces in one move. You don't need to scan the whole board each and every time to check this. Use a gradual approach: since a move will only affect part of the board, update (in your memory) the information depending on which new squares/pieces are attacked (and which are not attacked anymore). For the long-range pieces (rook, bishop, queen), it might help if you imagine their range as some kind of "shooting range"/no-go zone,... whatever helps you to visualize it. For instance for a rook on h4 don't imagine that it attacks the squares g4, f4, e4, ..., a4, but imagine it as a piece which covers all of the 4th rank (giving it options to capture everywhere on this rank but also options to move everywhere on this rank). As you improve this will come naturally.
Also at this stage you want to learn and practice simple tactics, such as pawn and knight forks, pins, etc. There are many websites (lichess, chesstempo...) giving you tactics puzzles depending on your strength. For a beginner I recommend chesstempo, because each puzzle is tagged with the tactical motive(s). When solving puzzles (or fail to solve) make sure you recognize these motives in the respective puzzle.
Besides tactics, you need to learn some basic principles for the opening such as: develop pieces quickly, occupy the center, keep your king safe/castle, attack something.
Also learning some basic endgames such as mating with queen, rook, bishops, King+pawn vs king, ... will teach you a lot.
Don't bother learning any opening theory yet, because you are not in the position to understand the ideas behind the openings and will not be able to take advantage if your opponent plays a move you did not learn.
Avoid short time controls which don't give you enough time to think. I'd recommend at least 20 minutes or more.
If you play online (e.g. on lichess) you have the option to automatically have the game analyzed by a computer engine. Do this and look for the main mistakes/blunders (where the evaluation jumped a lot). Understand why that was a bad move. Try to find a better move and compare with the computer suggested move. This will only teach you tactical mistakes.
Figuring out positional/strategic problems in your play is much more difficult and just about impossible if you are on your own. Ideally you'd have another, better player look over your games and point out some problems with your strategy.
For passive learning of strategy, reading/watching annotated games could be an option. Nowadays there are lots of streamers out there commenting while playing games online. Some of the chess24 streamers seem suitable for beginners.
Ideally you'd join a chess club where you can play, get tips from other players, etc.