I was wondering what is the minimum number of moves it takes to win (checkmate) as I would like to accomplish this in a game of chess.
That's very, very, very dependent on your opponent. There really is no number you can give for a definite way to get a "auto-checkmate" (if that's what you're looking for) as every opponent has different preferences and playing style. Like @Scounged stated, black can win in two moves. For white, the technical fastest way to win is in three moves (here's one variation: 1. e4 f6 2. Bc4 g5 3. Qh5#) but again, your opponet probably isn't that bad. A very popular fast checkmate against beginners is known as "Scholar's Mate" or more commonly known as the "Four Move Checkmate". It goes something like this: (1. e4 e5 2. Bc4 Bc5 3. Qh5 Nf6 4. Qxf7#).
Now of course, every chess game is uniqiue to it's own. There is no definite number of turns it takes to get a checkmate. On average, they say that it is 40 moves.
If you would like to practice recognizing checkmate patterns and opportunities, I would suggest going to Chess.com or Chessable.com as they have quite a wide variety of material to improve your chess skills.