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I was playing chess with my Dad, and he was shocked when I made a capture while check. He said that when he learned to play, that, when you are in check, you cannot capture with the king or any other piece to get out of check. This means that all you can do is move out of check. Is there a special rule or game type where this is true? We live in Hungary, so maybe they play different here.

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    What do you mean by "hit while I was in check"? – Herb Wolfe Feb 13 '17 at 20:53
  • In general ütni = hit, but in chess ütni = capture. – bof Feb 14 '17 at 0:17
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    The rules of chess are the same in Hungary as in other countries. You can read them in Hungarian at https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sakk. – bof Feb 14 '17 at 0:20
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    According to your Dad's rules, is 1.d4 f5 2.e3 Hf6 3.Vh5 already checkmate, or can Black play 3...g6 and then 4.Vxg6 is mate? – bof Feb 14 '17 at 1:26
  • Do games played by your dad's rules tend to be very short? For example, after 1. e4 e6? 2.Qh5 White seems to have a winning attack: 2...g6 3.Qe5 Qe7 4.Qxc7 – bof Feb 15 '17 at 1:44
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If you are playing chess, you are supposed to play according the FIDE Laws of Chess Art. 1 to 5. But those rules are not known to everyone playing „chess“ in private. The official rules allow every move or capture to get out of chess (except castling, of course). Private rules might differ, but those are not official, and one could discuss if the game described by those private rules is still chess.

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Below is for regular chess. I don't know about any chess variant which would have a rule like you describe.

If you are in check you have to deal with it somehow, i.e. after your move you should not be in check anymore. If there is no move which achieves this, it is check-mate.

There are at most three different ways to get out of check:

  1. move the king out of check
  2. capture the piece which attacks your king
  3. put a piece in-between the piece which attacks your king and your king (this can only work if a bishop, rook or queen attacks your king)

A simple example:

enter image description here

White is in check by the rook on h7. There are three possible moves for white: Kg1 (see "1"), Bxh7 ("2"), Nh3 (see "3").

As a side note, you cannot castle out of check.

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    Nor can you castle into, or through check. – Herb Wolfe Feb 14 '17 at 0:13
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    @HerbWolfe: True, but I only mentioned this one, since the context was, "ways to get out of check". – user1583209 Feb 14 '17 at 20:05

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