The same games of chess could be played if:
- white and black squares were swapped (i.e. the board rotated by 90 degrees)
- king and queen were swapped in the starting position (i.e. white/black kings on d1/d8 and white/black queen on e1/e8)
- black was allowed to start the game
Are there any other transformations, which leave the game the same (I think not)?
What is the origin of the current board orientation and king/queen position and first move for white?
Has anybody studied the effect of such transformation on the play? For instance:
- How much worse would an experienced player play?
- Would there be a preference for different kind of openings or trading pieces differently? For instance I could imagine that if the board was rotated 90 degrees (change of square color) this could change play because say a black bishop on a dark square has different contrast than a black bishop on a light square. Similarly, if king and queen were swapped, this could affect play as people are right or left handed.