So we know that the right computer can beat the best human. And computer players are rated as well as human players.

Is there any rating information available for hybrid players? (Humans moving the pieces, augmented by software doing analysis in the background)?

Is there support for the claim that human/computer hybrids are ranked the highest in the world? (Higher than either humans or computers alone)


1 Answer 1


Computer-human hybrid chess is known as Advanced Chess or Freestyle Chess. There used to be Advanced Chess tournaments in Leon (now it's normal rapid chess, I think), and Chessbase reported on some "anything goes" online Freestyle tournaments, that were generally won by "Centaurs", i.e. computer-human-hybrid players, not by sole engines.

In recent years there hasn't been much coverage of these kind of events, but apparently Freestyle chess is going strong as ever. Based on PAL/CSS, Infinity Chess and FICGS tournaments there even exists a rating list. (Keep in mind that you cannot compare the absolute values of the ratings on this list with the Fide rating list or the engine ratings.)

  • Thanks, this is a specific and detailed answer. I guess I can understand that the ratings are not directly comparable, but it looks like the top Centaur Elo rating is 2755. Can this be right? Via this other link, it looks like the top computer alone has an elo rating of 3351. computerchess.org.uk/ccrl/4040 -- would it then be fair to say that (even with comparison problems) the best Centaur is not as good as the best computer alone? Commented Nov 19, 2015 at 7:34
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    No, only ratings that stem from the same pool of players can be compared. The numbers just don't mean the same. If the Centaur ratings had been initialised with numbers 500 points higher, the highest rating now would be 3255. That doesn't mean anything. Commented Nov 19, 2015 at 9:15

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