Chess has more than 1000 years of existence and the pieces got their modern day movements in 15th century Spain. But which is the oldest chess game of which we know the moves?
The oldest recorded game with the modern rules for moves is this game played in 1475. Although it's not clear if castling and en passant were in force.
[FEN ""] [Event "Valencia "] [Date "1475"] [White "Francesco di Castellvi"] [Black "Narciso Vinyoles"] 1.e4 d5 2.exd5 Qxd5 3.Nc3 Qd8 4.Bc4 Nf6 5.Nf3 Bg4 6.h3 Bxf3 7.Qxf3 e6 8.Qxb7 Nbd7 9.Nb5 Rc8 10.Nxa7 Nb6 11.Nxc8 Nxc8 12.d4 Nd6 13.Bb5+ Nxb5 14.Qxb5+ Nd7 15.d5 exd5 16.Be3 Bd6 17.Rd1 Qf6 18.Rxd5 Qg6 19.Bf4 Bxf4 20.Qxd7+ Kf8 21.Qd8#
There is also this - http://www.chess2u.com/t8826-oldest-recorded-chess-game - game which is supposed to have been played some time in the 10th century with old move rules. So, no double first move for pawns, bishops moving like a knight (2 squares diagonally but jumping over the intervening square) and possibly other rules for queens for example.