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Does there exist a theory of pawn breaks?

Of course, there exists a theory of static pawn structure and good bishops; but I was thinking of rooks rather than bishops, and of aggressive pawns that open files rather than positional pawns that control squares.

Are rules or principles taught that guide the chess student in placing rooks early, choosing the right pawn to push, and otherwise preparing pawn breaks?

Details follow, if helpful.

THE DILEMMA

The question of pawn breaks seems to torment me whenever I have the black chessmen and my opponent opens 1. d4. Opportunities seem to arise for my black pawns to force files open in such games, but when should one exercise the opportunity? Under what conditions is a pawn break likely to help? When is it unwise? Is a standard tactic known to punish my opponent by advancing my knight during a thwarted break? If either of two, connected pawns can lead the break, which should lead? What position should the rook take before the break? Which rook?

When no pawn break is advisable, what should one do with one's rooks? What should one do, period? What kind of play is possible without open files, anyway? Pawn-storm play on the wing? But, if so, then how does one prepare the pawn storm? -- or, in other words, we are back to the original question regarding pawn breaks, except that this time my pawn structure is trashed before I even ask the question. The pawn storm (done not because it's a wise plan but because I cannot think of any other plan) leaves me an out-of-position king and a losing endgame. I don't get it.

So, there are a dozen or so ways of asking more or less the same question: I have the black chessmen, you open 1. d4 and start to build a pawn center, I thrust a pawn in to break up your center -- yet, early or late, whether backed by a rook or not, whichever pawn I choose to thrust in, it always seems to be the wrong pawn. Why?

Leaving aside the question of wing play to skirt a closed center, a big trouble my central pawn breaks are repeatedly causing me is that, when I push the pawn, it tends to leave you not me the choice of which of the two files in question to open -- or the choice of locking pawns, opening no file at all. If you are a strong opponent, then you choose well for yourself and ill for me. Thus, my pawn breaks usually do not work.

HOW SUCH GAMES CONFUSE ME

Moreover, such closed games broadly confuse me, because tempo seems less important in such games. Using scarce tempos wisely is a relative strong point of my game; so, when tempos are not scarce, I don't really know what to do with the extra time. Shuffling rooks around aimlessly does not seem to help much.

REQUEST FOR ADVICE RE PAWN BREAKS

If you want an easy game, open 1. d4 against me, present a pawn center, and watch my play degenerate into purposeless futility. I do not understand how to play these games, I keep losing them, and I should very much like to learn why.

(If relevant, I am officially unrated, put play at about USCF Class C, or FIDE Elo 1500.)

A related question, with answers, regarding the meaning of the term pawn break, is found here.

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It seems like there are really 3 parts to your question:

  1. When and how should pawn breaks be made?
  2. How should rooks be placed to support pawn pushes?
  3. How should plans be made around pawn breaks?

As a disclaimer, these questions are incredibly complicated, so take this answer as a starting point. Entire books have been written about pawn play. Furthermore, every position is different. While there are general ideas, the features of a specific position must be the main consideration.

So to begin - pawn breaks should be made for one of two reasons - to improve your own position or to deprive your opponent of good squares. This seems a little silly, but consider how your position can be improved - either your pieces can get better squares and lines, or you can create a passed pawn. A space advantage falls into the category of depriving your opponent of squares.

Bearing that in mind, pawn breaks should only be made when you can guarantee that your position will improve:

  • If a pawn break will leave an outpost for an enemy knight, it's probably premature. (ex. don't play d4 if there are pawns on e4 and e5 but white's f pawn is missing because e5 will be a permanent outpost).
    d4 would give e5 to the black knight
  • Pawn breaks are useful if you can create an outpost for your own pieces. (ex. black pawns on d6 and e6, pushing c5 will create an outpost)
    c5 creates an outpost on e5 for white
  • The last major consideration is space - in a closed or semi-closed position gaining space is incredibly useful because your pieces will have an extra rank on which to operate. In these cases, push your pawns when you can do so safely while still keeping enough tension to favorably open the position later.

Moving on to part 2... Simply, rooks should be posted on the files that will be opened after a pawn break. While it frequently takes some calculation to figure out how everything will work out, once done, good squares for both rooks can be found. Usually this is behind the pawn that you will push, but frequently it is on an adjacent file.

Finally, the crux of the matter - how to plan for and utilize pawn breaks effectively. Generally speaking, you should only open the position in a part of the board that you already control. That means that if you have a preponderance of force on the kingside, for example, f2-f4 immediately should become a candidate pawn break.

When you prepare a pawn break, frequently you will want to recapture the pawn with another pawn. In this diagram, white has a space advantage but will eventually have to break the position open in order to win:
enter image description here
1. f4 immediately would be premature because black would gain the e5 square as an outpost for the knight. Instead, white should prepare the break with moves like g3 and Rg1. Only then should the break be seriously considered tactically. With that said, f4 should also be the only pawn break considered. Black owns the queenside, so a pawn break there would only serve black. The center is locked, so a move like d4 would only lose a pawn. Finally, g4 and h4 don't serve any purpose other than creating holes in the white position that black might later be able to utilize.

Hopefully that gives you a reasonable starting point, but again, every position is different and must be considered based on its own merits.

  • This would become so much nicer with replayers :·) – Nikana Reklawyks Dec 1 '12 at 1:05
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    In your last diagram, what is white's plan if black does not cooperate and does not take on f4 after the g3-f4 push? – Potato Jun 20 '14 at 17:12
  • @Potato I'm not an expert, but after 1.g3 and 2.f4, then I think white plays 3.fxe5. 3...dxe5 gives white a passed pawn, and 3...Rxe5 gives up some of black's central control. In either case, the f-file becomes semi-open for white's rooks, while black's semi-open d- or e-file is pretty useless. – Kef Schecter Apr 14 '18 at 11:12
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To address this issue:

"A big trouble my central pawn breaks are repeatedly causing me is that, when I push the pawn, it tends to leave you not me the choice of which of the two files in question to open."

A player that is in a position to push for a pawn break is often stronger on BOTH files, leaving his opponent with a choice of evils.

Another time to push for a pawn break is when a tactical advantage (e.g. a pin) forces the pawn break to go one way.

If the pawn break leaves your opponent with some advantageous choices, it is probably best avoided.

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    Leaving your opponent with a choice of evils actually makes up for the most part of Go strategy, +1 for that. Of course, leaving your opponent with good choices is never something you wanna do. – Nikana Reklawyks Dec 1 '12 at 1:07

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